A Personal History Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
If you have inflammatory bowel disease , including either ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease, your risk of colorectal cancer is increased.
IBD is a condition in which the colon is inflamed over a long period of time. People who have had IBD for many years, especially if untreated, often develop dysplasia. Dysplasia is a term used to describe cells in the lining of the colon or rectum that look abnormal, but are not cancer cells. They can change into cancer over time.
If you have IBD, you may need to start getting screened for colorectal cancer when you are younger and be screened more often.
Inflammatory bowel disease is different from irritable bowel syndrome , which does not appear to increase your risk for colorectal cancer.
Pancreatic Cancer And Diabetes:
The pancreas is the organ in the body that releases insulin. When cancer develops in the pancreas, it damages the tissue. You pancreas may not be release insulin properly, or your pancreas may not release enough insulin. This may lead to diabetes because your bodys cells may not be able to use the blood sugar molecules properly.
Will my pancreas function normally after treatment?
- The pancreas cannot replace damaged cells with healthy ones.
- Medications may provide the body with the needed hormones that the pancreas releases. Digestive enzymes can also be taken as a medication if the pancreas can no longer produce them.
Treatment Of Bowel Cancer
Treatment for colon cancer will depend on how far advanced the cancer is.
If the cancer is in stage 1, the cancer will often be treated with surgery alone to remove the cancer.
If the cancer is in stage 2 or 3, surgery can remove the cancer and chemotherapy will likely be given to prevent the cancer returning.
If in stage 4, the cancer cannot be eliminated but it may be possible to control the cancer using one of more of the following treatment options:
- Surgery to physically remove the cancers
- Chemotherapy medicines used to kill cancerous cells
- Radiotherapy radiation in the form of high energy x-rays used to kill cancer cells
- Monoclonal antibody therapy laboratory made antibodies which can target cancer cells and prevent them from spreading
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Gallbladder Or Liver Enlargement
If the cancer blocks the bile duct, bile can build up in the gallbladder, making it larger. Sometimes a doctor can feel this during a physical exam. It can also be seen on imaging tests.
Pancreatic cancer can also sometimes enlarge the liver, especially if the cancer has spread there. The doctor might be able to feel the edge of the liver below the right ribcage on an exam, or the large liver might be seen on imaging tests.
Bright Red Blood: A Sign Of Colon Cancer
Blood in the stool is commonly a sign of hemorrhoids, not colon cancer. As the stool passes along, the swollen tissue may obstruct the stool, causing the hemorrhoid to rupture and bleed. The blood is usually bright red in color and watery in consistency.
On the other hand, bleeding from colon cancer is typically described as darker in appearance. Stool ranging from maroon to tar-like can be a sign of colon abnormalities. This is because the blood is produced higher up in the colon and is less fresh than one from a hemorrhoid rupture.
Again, its impossible to accurately diagnose colon cancer from the color of the stool alone. We recommend a proper examination to really understand your state of health.
Changes In Bowel Habits
Changes in bowel habits that can indicate colon or rectal cancer include the following:
New-onset constipation or diarrhea
Changes in frequency or size and caliber of bowel movements
A bowel that doesnt seem to empty completely
Stool that is narrower than normal
Occasional bowel changes can be caused by a dietary change, disagreeable food or a viral/bacterial infection. However, if you are experiencing something new and unexplainedand it lasts more than a couple of dayssee your doctor.
5 Things Your Poop Can Tell You About Your Health
Ever curious what bowel changes could signal about your health? Poop may be a gross topic that no one likes to talk about, but taking a quick peek before you flush may give you clues about your health.
Lectin Binding In Tissue Sections
Animals were deeply anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of Ketamine/xylazine 100mg/kg and 10mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were transcardially perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1M PBS, pH 7.4. Tissue was cryoprotected in 30% sucrose in 0.1M TPO4 for at least 1 week, then embedded in O.T.C compound and cryosectioned into 20-m sections. Lectins and their nominal sugar specificities are listed in . Staining was performed at 4°C overnight to 100g/ml. Negative controls consisted of streptavidin alone and biotinylated lectins without fluorescent streptavidin. Fluorescent samples were analyzed under a confocal microscope .
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Signs You Have Colon Cancer
Rectal bleeding is not the sole sign of colon cancer. In fact, symptoms exhibited by patients may vary. Below are the most common signs of colon cancer:
- A constant change in bowel movement including diarrhea and constipation
- Change in stool consistency
- Cramping, gas, and other forms of pain
- Consistent and progressive abdominal discomfort
- Fatigue and breathlessness
- Unprecedented weight loss
- Feeling bloated
- Inability to pass gas
The presence of blood in the stool is interpreted as an alarming sign of colon cancer. However, that alone is not a conclusive proof of colon cancer. Doctors usually require further testing to clearly establish the cause of the bleeding.
On the other hand, experiencing abnormal bleeding accompanied with one or more of the symptoms above require urgent medical attention. Various tests are available in order to rule out colon cancer.
High Blood Sugar Linked To Cancer Risk
Swedish Study Shows More Cancer in People With Higher Blood Sugar, Regardless of Diabetes
High blood sugar wasn’t tied to men’s overall cancer risk.
But when researchers looked at specific types of cancer, they found that both men and women with the highest blood sugar levels were more likely to have pancreatic cancer, urinary tract cancer, and malignant melanoma than those with the lowest blood sugar levels.
Keeping blood sugar levels within the normal range “may reduce cancer risk,” write the researchers, who included Par Stattin, MD, PhD, of Sweden’s Umea University Hospital.
For the study, Stattin’s team invited all residents of a county in northern Sweden to sign up for the study when they were 40, 50, or 60 years old.
Nearly 64,600 people accepted the offer. All were nonsmokers without diabetes or a history of cancer .
Most participants had normal results in both tests. The data show normal blood sugar results for at least 85% of the group after fasting and at least 92% after the sugary drink.
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What Are The Signs Of High Blood Sugar Levels
High blood sugar isnt an abstract concept. You can measure your blood sugar levels with glucose monitors. However, youll probably notice the signs of insulin resistance even without a blood test.
Below is a list of the most common signs of high blood sugar and insulin resistance:
- Extreme thirst and hunger no amount of drinking or eating can make you feel satisfied
- Fatigue, especially after meals
Tissue Lysates And Western Blot
Total lysates were obtained homogenizing tissue samples in a potter with lysis buffer 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% sodium deoxycolate, 0.2% SDS, 150mM NaCl, 2mM EDTA, 10mM HEPES , 20mM NaF, 1mM orthovanadate and a protease inhibitor cocktail, for 30min at 4oC. After centrifugation at 10000g for 10min at 4°C, the supernatant was removed and stored at 80°C. For immunoblotting equal amounts of protein from tissue lysates were separated on 7.5% SDSPAGE and transferred onto nitrocellulose sheets. The membranes were blocked and incubated overnight with primary antibodies GFAT1 and GFAT2 , CTD-110.6 for O-GlcNAc , -actin and vinculin . After washing, the membranes were incubated for 1h with peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies, developed using ECL and exposed to Image Quant LAS 4000 . ImageJ software was used for densitometry analysis of immunoblots, and measurements were normalized against -actin or vinculin loading controls.
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Do Diabetes Treatments Raise Cancer Risk
There is evidence, but not definitive proof, that diabetes treatments affect cancer risk.
Metformin, the most commonly used diabetes drug, seems to lower cancer risk. But there’s also evidence from some studies — contradicted by others — that insulin, particularly long-acting insulin glargine , may increase cancer risk.
Moreover, there are at least theoretical concerns that other relatively new diabetes drugs may affect cancer risk. Unfortunately, the panel found too little data to form an opinion on this question.
Because there is no definitive link between diabetes treatment and cancer, the panel strongly advises people with diabetes — except those at extremely high risk of cancer — not to make treatment decisions based on fear of cancer.
“Clearly those being treated for diabetes need to be talking with their doctors about the importance of regular cancer screenings as recommended by the American Cancer Society,” Gapstur says.
The consensus panel’s report appears in the July/August issue of the ACS journal CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
Plasma Insulin Blood Glucose And Insulin Resistance
In the MDC-CC all the blood and plasma samples were collected at the MDC-CC baseline by a trained nurse in the morning after 12 h of fasting, and plasma was separated and immediately frozen at 20 °C until analysed. Analyses were performed according to the clinical routines of the Department of Clinical Chemistry. Blood glucose was analysed using a routine hexokinase method. Insulin levels were measured in mIU/ml by a radioimmunoassay. The lowest limit for detection was 3 mlU/ml.
HOMA2-IR was calculated with the use of a HOMA2-IR calculator . In the analysis of HOMA2-IR, extreme values of blood glucose were excluded, as were extreme values of plasma insulin , thus leaving 4451 individuals for analysis of HOMA2-IR. From the remaining individuals 135 cases of CRC, 76 cases colon cancer, and 59 cases of rectal cancer were found.
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Cancer Treatments Raise The Risk Of Diabetes
Just as diabetes increases a persons risk for developing cancer, cancer may make a person more susceptible to diabetes.
A 2018 study published in JAMA Oncology suggests the incidence of diabetes is six times greater among cancer patients than in people who dont have cancer. It may not be so much the cancer itself, but the way its treated.
In some regions of the body, radiation therapy that attacks cancer cells may also destroy cells that produce insulin. And steroids, which are often used to reduce nausea during chemotherapy, are among the drugs that raise blood sugar levels.
The JAMA Oncology study found the risk for developing diabetes greatest within two years of completing cancer treatments, although the risk remains elevated after that.
Immunotherapies may also contribute to diabetes, according to a May 2020 article in Cure Magazine. Some people who take checkpoint inhibitors commonly used to treat kidney, lung and blood cancers develop severe cases of diabetes. Researchers think the immunotherapies may attack not just cancer cells, but insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as well. The reaction may lead to the more severe type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder. And pancreatic cancer patients are five times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than similar individuals with no history of cancer.
Increased Glucose Level Is A Strong Risk Factor For Colorectal Cancer
- American Gastroenterological Association
- Patients with high levels of insulin and glucose are at increased risk of developing recurrent colorectal adenomas, or tumors, with elevated glucose providing the strongest risk factor for recurrence of these lesions, according to new research.
Diabetes is a very common illness that affects more than 20 million people in the U.S. and it is estimated an additional 54 million Americans have pre-diabetes, a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to determine whether glucose and insulin levels are associated with a higher risk of colon polyps, the precursor lesions to colon cancer. According to the results of a study published in Gastroenterology, patients with high levels of insulin and glucose are at increased risk of developing recurrent colorectal adenomas, or tumors, with elevated glucose providing the strongest risk factor for recurrence of these lesions.
In particular, study subjects who had even modestly impaired fasting glucose had an especially large increased risk of recurrence of the types of polyps that are most likely to progress to invasive cancer. Therefore, the clinical management of glycemic control is important in reducing the risk of tumor recurrence and colorectal cancer.
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The Link Between Diabetes And Colon Cancer
Not counting skin cancer, colorectal cancer is thethird most common form of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Americans. Colon cancer affects your large intestine, the last stage of the digestive tract. Colorectal cancer starts as small polyps that form inside your colon and can become cancerous with time.
Regular colonoscopies identify polyps in their early stages so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. People with Type 2 diabetes are at particular risk of developing cancerous polyps and should not skip their regular screenings.
At GastroDoxs in Houston, Texas, board-certified gastroenterologist Bharat Pothuri, MD is aware of the extra risk that people with diabetes face when it comes to colon cancer. Were available to help you optimize your lifestyle so you reduce your risk of colon cancer. We also provide screenings to catch it early and offer expert management if you should receive a diagnosis.
Weve pulled together this information about the unique relationship between diabetes and colon cancer.
Unexplained Weight Loss Loss Of Appetite And Feeling Weak
Losing weight, losing your appetite or feeling weak are all possible signs of colon or rectal cancer along with many other unrelated conditions. In patients with colon or rectal cancer, these symptoms are usually related. Persistent diarrhea can cause weight loss. Stomach pain and nausea can reduce your appetite so that you dont consume enough food to maintain your weight. All these issues, as well as anemia, can lead to weakness.
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Sugar And Cancer Treatment: 4 Things Patients Should Know
There are many myths surrounding sugar and cancer treatment. But what do cancer patients really need to know about sugar to make sure theyre getting the best diet during treatment?
We spoke with Erma Levy, a dietitian at MD Anderson, to find out.
Eating dessert wont make your cancer spread
Many people think that sugar will make your cancer spread, but thats not technically true, Levy says.
Every cell in your body uses sugar, and that includes cancer cells. But that doesnt mean sugar will make your cancer spread.
The danger in sugar is that its basically empty calories. It would be better to consume vitamins and nutrients that help your body stay strong during cancer treatment, Levy says.
You dont need to cut all sugar from your diet
Eliminating all sugar from your diet is difficult and unnecessary.
You dont need to take an all or nothing approach, Levy says. Its best to consume no more than the recommended amount of sugar each day and to try to take in less sugar if you need to.
The American Heart Association recommends no more than six teaspoons of added sugar per day for women and nine teaspoons per day for men.
Levy says its more important to focus on consuming less added sugar than natural sugars, like those found in fruits and grains.
Thats because added sugar which is found in drinks and processed or prepared foods — can lead to unwanted weight gain, which can cause other health problems.
Artificial sweeteners arent necessarily healthy
The Metabolic Syndrome And Risk Of Colon Cancer
Thus far, studies of determinants, clinical correlates, and biochemical components of the metabolic syndrome have been summarized. Some studies have now examined standard definitions of the metabolic syndrome in relation to colorectal cancer risk. In one such study , both men and women who were defined as having the metabolic syndrome were at significantly elevated risk of fatal colon cancer , but this was based on only 6 cases in the metabolic syndrome group. In another study, which used less traditional criteria , men and women classified with the metabolic syndrome had a significantly elevated RR relative to those without this syndrome . In another study, baseline metabolic syndrome components had a positive association that was stronger in men than in women . Furthermore, a dose-response relation with colon cancer was noted with the number of metabolic syndrome components. In Finnish male smokers, subjects with a cluster of 3 components of the metabolic syndrome had a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer and colon cancer .
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Colon Cancer May Be Caused By Bacteria
More than 1.3 million North Americans have had colorectal cancer, a disease associated with lifestyle factors that encourage cancer-causing bacteria to thrive in your colon: eating lots of red and processed meats, sugar added foods, sugared drinks and fried foods not eating enough vegetables, fruits, nuts and whole grains not exercising smoking drinking alcohol
A new study shows that 992 people who were already diagnosed with colon cancer that had spread beyond the colon, who changed to a healthier diet and exercise program, had a 42 percent lower risk of dying over the next seven years compared to those who did not change their lifestyles . The changes corrected each of the lifestyle factors listed above, as recommended by the American Cancer Society Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines for Cancer Survivors.
These bacteria appear to increase colon cancer risk by suppressing a persons immunity that is supposed to kill cancer cells :7181). A diet rich in soluble fiber helps to reduce the growth of Fusobacterium in your colon :921-927). Lack of fruits and vegetables increases colon cancer risk by the following mechanism: You cannot absorb soluble fiber and resistant starch from plants in your upper intestinal tract, so they pass to your colon where specific bacteria ferment them to generate short chain fatty acids that help you to avoid overweight and dampen down inflammation, which helps to protect you from colon cancer and other cancers .