Hypoglycemia: The Potentially Limiting Factor In Glycemic Management Of Type 2 Dm
Hypoglycemia is a serious concern that limits the feasibility of intense glucose control in real-world practice. Several factors may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 DM: use of insulin secretagogues, missed meals, advanced age, duration of disease, and unawareness of hypoglycemia.53 On the basis of the United Kingdom Hypoglycemia Study, the rates of mild, moderate, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 DM were comparable for patients treated with sulfonylureas and with insulin for less than 2 years.54 Fear of iatrogenic hypoglycemia when managing patients with type 2 DM may result in suboptimal glycemic control that increases the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications.55 Hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 DM may be associated with increased symptoms of chest pain and electrocardiographic abnormalities and may account for sudden death.56–58 The acute severity of hypoglycemia can be exemplified in an average of 380,000 emergency department visits each year based on an estimate of approximately 5 million visits between 1993 and 2005.59 Hypoglycemia is also associated with detrimental effects on cognitive function and mood changes.60
From Int J Clin Pract,62 with permission from Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Why Might Changing Timing Help
But why does simply changing the timing of our meals to allow for fasting make a difference in our body? An in-depth review of the science of IF recently published in New England Journal of Medicine sheds some light. Fasting is evolutionarily embedded within our physiology, triggering several essential cellular functions. Flipping the switch from a fed to fasting state does more than help us burn calories and lose weight. The researchers combed through dozens of animal and human studies to explain how simple fasting improves metabolism, lowers blood sugar levels lessens inflammation, which improves a range of health issues from arthritic pain to asthma and even helps clear out toxins and damaged cells, which lowers risk for cancer and enhances brain function.
What Other Symptoms Of Diabetes Should You Watch For
Weight loss from diabetes is not usually a standalone symptom. Its typically accompanied by other signs, including:
- Excessive thirst or hunger.
- Dark skin around the neck and armpits.
- Slow healing of cuts and bruises.
- Yeast infections.
- Vision changes.
How is diabetes weight loss treated?
If youre experiencing weight loss and are uncertain about how to gain the weight back, consult with your physician. You dont want to start eating unhealthy fats just to put the pounds back on, as that can lead to a worsened case of diabetes.
Instead, your doctor may suggest supplemental insulin treatments or other medications to make sure your blood sugar normalizes.
Its important to remember that unexplained weight loss isnt normal, says Cotey.
Its not only a sign of diabetes, but may also point to other issues such as cancer or gastrointestinal tract, metabolism or thyroid issues. If youre dropping weight and dont know why, see your healthcare provider as soon as possible.
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Group B: Increased Levels Between 56 And 69 Mmol/l
When you are a group-B person, you must make sure that you are getting plenty of proteins in your diet.
Also, make sure to get plenty of fiber-rich and full-grain carbohydrates to help you feel full.
In this group, you must get plenty of proteins coming from meat, chicken fish. But also eggs, cheese, and proteins are coming from vegetables.
When it comes to fat, you must get more fat than group-A but not as much as group-C, which is up next.
Your Biggest Hurdle As A Group-B Person
Your diet may not work, and you will have to switch to either group A or B.
If you still feel hungry and eat a lot after making the diet changes, you might be in the wrong group.
If your numbers are closest to 5,6 mmol/l, you should then see yourself as a group-A person. And, if your number is in the upper area and close to 6,9 mmol/l, group C might be right for you.
Examples Of Food You Can Have
What Is Low Blood Sugar
A healthy persons blood sugar levels are primarily regulated by their pancreas, liver, and several hormones. Your pancreas releases insulin to lower blood sugar when its high, and your liver releases stored sugar to help prevent low blood sugar.
Low blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Severe hypoglycemia can become life-threatening if it isnt treated quickly.
Low blood sugar usually affects people with diabetes taking medications to help lower their blood sugar. Insulin and sulfonylureas are the two main diabetes medications that can cause low blood sugar. However, you can get low blood sugar even if you dont have diabetes.
There are different levels of hypoglycemia, which correlate with the severity of low blood sugar.
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Eat Protein With Carbohydrates
Eating protein with carbohydrates helps slow the rise in your blood sugar levels. Examples of protein include meat, eggs, cheese, soy products like tofu, nuts and nut butters, and seeds.
If you have reactive hypoglycemia, eating protein with carbohydrates is essential. Even if you dont have reactive hypoglycemia, eating protein with carbs can help make you feel fuller and more satisfied, and may help reduce sugar cravings.
Eating crackers with cheese or peanut butter with toast are some examples.
For Those Using An Insulin Pump Or Pod
While insulin pumps offer far more options when it comes to dosing adjustments, they can also make implementing changes seem a little more overwhelming.
If youre on a pump, you can look more closely at what times of day youre experiencing more high or low blood sugars, explains Smith. While the 5 to 10 percent reduction in your total basal insulin is similar to those on injections, you have more control over which specific hours you make that adjustment.
Smith says that while you could make a reduction across all basal rates as the simplest approach, youll likely fare better if you can pinpoint where the reduction is most necessary.
What is your total basal insulin? A 10 percent reduction in 24 total units, for example, is 2.4 units less. But then you have to divide that across the board all day, and youll have to reduce every basal rate, said Smith, referring to those who may have variable basal rates set on their pump.
She suggests making small changes and then monitoring closely to determine if theres a particular period of the day when youre having the most lows. That may be evening or overnight now you can see exactly where you can reduce your basal, she said.
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Hypoglycemia Tests And Diagnosis
To diagnose nondiabetic hypoglycemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask questions about any medicines you take. Theyâll want to know all about your health and any history of diseases or stomach surgery.
Theyâll check your blood glucose level, especially when you are having symptoms. Theyâll also check to see if you feel better when your sugar goes back to a normal level.
If your doctor suspects hypoglycemia, you may have to fast until you start to have symptoms. Theyâll test your blood glucose level at different times throughout the fast.
To check for reactive hypoglycemia, you may have to take a test called a mixed-meal tolerance test . For this, you take a special drink that raises your blood glucose. The doctor will check your blood glucose levels over the next few hours.
Are You At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes
What you consume throughout your day and how active you are affects your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Being overweight , or affected by obesity or morbid obesity , greatly increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The more excess weight you have, the more resistant your muscle and tissue cells become to your own insulin hormone. More than 90 percent of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or affected by a degree of obesity.
In addition to excess weight, there are many other factors that increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, such as:
Inactivity and being overweight go hand-in-hand with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Muscle cells have more insulin receptors than fat cells, so an individual can decrease insulin resistance by exercising. Being more active also lowers blood sugar levels by helping insulin to be more effective.
Unhealthy eating habits
Unhealthy eating is a contributor to obesity. Too much fat in your diet, not enough fiber and too many simple carbohydrates all contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
Family history and genetics
It appears that people who have family members with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk for developing it themselves. Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaskans, African Americans and Hispanics all have a higher than normal rate of type 2 diabetes.
High blood pressure and high cholesterol
History of gestational diabetes
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Always Eat Breakfast With A Good Source Of Protein
Whether or not youre a breakfast person, its always best to make sure your first meal of the day contains a good source of protein. Protein is the primary nutrient that keeps your appetite satisfied its slow to digest and keeps blood-sugar levels stabilized. . Start your day with protein, which will keep your blood-sugar levels stable.
A few blood-sugar-balancing Paleo breakfast ideas include:
- 3 organic eggs with tomatoes, avocado, and turkey bacon
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The Effects Of Low Blood Sugar On Your Body
Every cell in your body needs energy to function. The main source of energy might come as a surprise: Its sugar, also known as glucose. Blood sugar is essential to proper brain, heart, and digestive function. It even helps keep your skin and vision healthy.
When your blood sugar levels fall below the normal range, its called hypoglycemia. There are many identifiable symptoms of low blood sugar, but the only way to know if you have low blood sugar is by taking a blood glucose test.
Learn more about the symptoms of low blood sugar, as well as the long-term effects on the body.
most common reasons for low blood sugar are some medications used to treat diabetes, such as insulin.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesnt make enough insulin, or your body cant use it properly. Too much insulin or oral diabetic medication can lower the blood sugar level, leading to hypoglycemia.
However, contrary to popular belief, low blood sugar isnt exclusive to diabetes, though it is rare. It can also happen if your body makes more insulin than it should.
Another possible cause of low blood sugar is drinking too much alcohol, especially over long periods of time. This can interfere with the livers ability to create a buildup of glucose and then release it into your bloodstream when you need it.
Other causes include:
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Exercising With Low Blood Sugar
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How Can I Prevent Low Blood Glucose
Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hypoglycemia so you can treat it earlybefore it gets worse.
Monitoring blood glucose, with either a meter or a CGM, is the tried and true method for preventing hypoglycemia. Studies consistently show that the more a person checks blood glucose, the lower his or her risk of hypoglycemia. This is because you can see when blood glucose levels are dropping and can treat it before it gets too low.
If you can, check often!
- Check before and after meals.
- Check before and after exercise .
- Check before bed.
- After intense exercise, also check in the middle of the night.
- Check more if things around you change such as, a new insulin routine, a different work schedule, an increase in physical activity, or travel across time zones.
How Hormones Affect Weight Loss
In order to understand how metabolic health plays into weight gain and weight loss, you have to grasp the critical role that the hormone insulin plays. When sugar enters our bloodstream after we eat, insulin is needed to move that sugar into our cells where it can be converted into energy. When our bodies donât require so much that energy , the excess sugar is first stored in the liver and the muscles as a substance called glycogen. If those stores reach full capacity, glucose finds its next home in our fat cells, as triglycerides.
Between meals and snacks, your insulin levels subside because they arenât needed to shuttle bursts of blood sugar into cells. But your body still needs a steady source of fuel to power basic functioning so when it senses low insulin, it taps into glycogen. When glycogen is all used up, your body uses fat stores as a source of energy next. Bingo! You see weight loss.
In other words, if we donât get our insulin levels in check, our bodies are chronically in fat-storage mode instead of fat-burning mode. The key to getting back on track and losing weight: Make sure our blood sugar levels are stable and our insulin production never goes into overdrive.
Never Leave Home Without A Snack
I always have a bag of raw almonds in every purse, my glove compartment, and gym bag so I’m never stuck being starving with low blood sugar if say, restaurant reservations get pushed back or I have to run some errands after the gym. Carrying snacks is not just a great way to prevent low blood sugar when your day doesn’t go as planned or you need a boost before a fitness class, but it’s also key to helping you lose weight. Hunger is your enemy when it comes to weight loss, so having healthy snack options on hand can help you avoid having to grab something less than ideal when you’re starving. Experiment with having a snack with slow carbs, protein, fat, and fiber two hours or so before your workout. (
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What Is The Best Blood Sugar Levels When You Want To Lose Weight
It is a question many dieters are asking when they are tweaking their diet for optimal weight loss!
The truth is, as long as you dont have any diabetes or other health issues, you are much better off changing your diet according to your blood sugar levels.
It means instead of jumping on yet another weight loss diet you should measure your blood sugar levels and tailor your diet accordingly. We will talk more about how to do that later in this article.
According to research from the University of Copenhagen and the University of Colorado, studies suggest that your glucose and insulin levels in your blood are biomarkers for how you convert carbohydrates. At the same time, they are also markers for whether you feel full or not after having a meal.
The faster you feel full and satisfied, the fewer calories you will consume. Eating according to your blood sugar levels can help you accomplish that.
If you dont feel full and satisfied when having a meal and can keep eating, your diet is wrong. From here, it is merely a question about changing the food components in your diet.
Want To Do Popular Diets Think Twice
So, if you are about to do a popular diet like the keto, a high-protein diet, or something similar? I highly encourage you to check your blood sugar levels before you start. It can save you from wasting your time and optimize your results.
If your levels are low or average, it will benefit you getting some carbohydrates with your diet. They will help you feel full faster.
If your levels are medium or at the highest, fewer or minimum amounts of carbohydrates and more protein and fat is a better choice.