How Do I Check
People with diabetes check their blood sugar levels by poking their fingertips and using a blood glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor to measure the blood glucose level at that moment. Read on to find out how to use a blood glucose meter. To find out more about CGMs, start by talking to your doctor.
Cautions With Other Medicines
There are some medicines that interfere with the way gliclazide works.
Tell your doctor if you’re taking any of these medicines:
- steroid tablets, such as prednisolone
- some medicines used to treat heart problems and high blood pressure
- medicines to treat bacterial or fungal infections, such as clarithromycin or fluconazole
- painkillers, such as ibuprofen and aspirin
- medicines used to treat asthma, such as salbutamol
- male and female hormones, such as testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone
- other diabetes medicines
Gliclazide may also increase the effects of medicines that thin your blood, such as warfarin.
Some women might need a small adjustment in their gliclazide dose after starting contraceptive pills, as in rare cases they can increase blood sugar levels.
What Else Can I Do To Help Manage My Blood Sugar Levels
- Keep track of your blood sugar levels to see what makes them go up or down.
- Eat at regular times, and dont skip meals.
- Choose foods lower in calories, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and salt.
- Track your food, drink, and physical activity.
- Drink water instead of juice or soda.
- Limit alcoholic drinks.
- For a sweet treat, choose fruit.
- Control your food portions .
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How Do You Know If You Have Type 2 Diabetes
As already mentioned, type 2 diabetes symptoms often come on gradually and can be quite vague at first. Many people have diabetes for a long period of time before their diagnosis is made.
The most common symptoms are:
- Being thirsty a lot of the time.
- Passing large amounts of urine.
- Tiredness, which may be worse after meals.
The reason why you make a lot of urine and become thirsty is that if your blood sugar rises too high the excess sugar leaks into your urine. This pulls out extra water through the kidneys.
As the symptoms may develop gradually, you can become used to being thirsty and tired and you may not recognise for some time that you are ill. Some people also develop blurred vision and frequent infections, such as recurring thrush. However, some people with type 2 diabetes do not have any symptoms if the glucose level is not too high. But, even if you do not have symptoms, you should still have treatment to reduce the risk of developing complications.
Type 2 Diabetes
When Should I Measure My Blood Glucose
Throughout the rest of your pregnancy, you will need to measure your blood glucose levels at various points through the day, to check that they are within the limits you have been given at each of those times:
When you get up You need to measure your blood glucose levels each morning when you get up, before you have anything to eat or drink. This blood glucose level is called your fasting blood glucose level because you will have an empty stomach. You must not have eaten or drunk anything apart from water overnight, for at least eight hours.
Your team should have discussed this with you and agreed the ideal morning blood glucose level for you to aim for.
Before or after every meal You will probably be asked to measure your blood glucose level around the time of a meal. Some services measure before eating while others measure one or two hours after a meal .
Again, you will have discussed and agreed an ideal blood glucose level after meals with your diabetes team. These levels will be higher than your fasting blood glucose levels, as you will just have eaten.
If you are taking insulin to help to control your blood glucose levels, you may need to do a separate test before you go to bed, or even during the night, although this is unusual.
“When we did go out for a special meal or two, and I’d have a little bit of cheesecake or something, it really affected my sugar levels. But that would’ve been just twice in the whole pregnancy.” Gemma, mum of one
How To Reduce Blood Sugar
You can take steps to reach your blood sugar goals as soon as you find out that it is high. This is how to reduce blood sugar if you have a single high reading that may be dangerous:
- Ask your doctor what to do if you missed a dose of insulin or another diabetes medication
- Ask your doctor if your medication types and doses are still appropriate for you
- Drink water to dilute the sugar
- Exercise for 15 minutes
- Eat a small protein snack, such as a hard-boiled egg, ½ ounce of peanuts or pistachios or other nuts, ½ cup of beans, or ½ cup of plain yogurt or cottage cheese
If you have chronically high blood sugar in prediabetes or diabetes, you can follow this treatment plan:
- Exercise regularly, assuming your doctor approves it
- Lose weight if you are overweight or obese
- Eat a higher proportion of vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, healthy fats, and fruit
- Limit sugary foods and beverages, fried foods, refined starches, and processed and fatty red meats
- Beware of starchy vegetables such as sweet potatoes, which can spike your blood sugar. Check out our guide of which veggies to avoid!
What Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Advancements in technology have given us another way to monitor glucose levels. Continuous glucose monitoring uses a tiny sensor inserted under your skin. You don’t need to prick your finger. Instead, the sensor measures your glucose and can display results anytime during the day or night. Ask your healthcare provider about continuous glucose monitors to see if this is an option for you.
National Guidelines For Testing
NICE Guidelines for testing3
1.3.5 Advise pregnant women with any form of diabetes to maintain their capillary plasma glucose below the following target levels, if these are achievable without causing problematic hypoglycaemia:fasting: 5.3 mmol/litre and
SIGN Guidelines for testing2
Postprandial glucose monitoring should be carried out in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and may be considered in pregnant women with type 1 or 2 diabetes.
aim to achieve blood glucose: between 4 and 6 mmol/l preprandially, and < 8 mmol/l one hour postprandially, or < 7 mmol/l two hours postprandially > 6 mmol/l before bed.
HSE Guidelines for testing4
5.3.6 Blood glucose targets during pregnancy
The following target values are recommended for optimum maternal and fetal outcome: Fasting capillary glucose level: 3.5-5.0mmol/L 1 hour post-prandial capillary glucose level: < 7.0mmol/L
It is worth noting that not one National guideline recommends only preprandial testing, or alternative days of preprandial and postprandial testing. They all recommend fasting and postprandial testing, with additional preprandial testing recommended for those using insulin therapy
When Should I Check My Blood Sugar
How often you check your blood sugar depends on the type of diabetes you have and if you take any diabetes medicines.
Typical times to check your blood sugar include:
- When you first wake up, before you eat or drink anything.
- Before a meal.
- Two hours after a meal.
- At bedtime.
If you have type 1 diabetes, have type 2 diabetes and take insulin, or often have low blood sugar, your doctor may want you to check your blood sugar more often, such as before and after youre physically active.
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Keep Your Blood Pressure Down
It is very important to have your blood pressure checked regularly. The combination of high blood pressure and diabetes is a particularly high risk factor for complications. Even mildly raised blood pressure should be treated if you have diabetes. Medication, often with two or even three different medicines, may be needed to keep your blood pressure down but remember weight loss and exercise can really help with this too.
What Are The Different Types Of Diabetes
The types of diabetes are:
- Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. Its usually diagnosed in children and young adults . It was once better known as juvenile diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or your bodys cells dont respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes. Your parents or grandparents may have called it having a touch of sugar.
- Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.
Less common types of diabetes include:
Diabetes insipidus is a distinct rare condition that causes your kidneys to produce a large amount of urine.
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Choosing The Right Blood Glucose Monitor
When selecting a blood glucose monitor you should consider the following:
Ease of use and functions: some monitors are easier to use than others. You should consider getting one with a memory, so you can share the information with your diabetic nurse or doctor.
Availability of test strips: all monitors come with a small supply of test strips, but you will have to buy more test strips. These can be expensive and may not be available on prescription.
Cost: expensive monitors are not necessarily the best ones. Also, you could get one free from the diabetic clinic if your diabetic nurse or doctor thinks itâs necessary for you to self-monitor your blood sugar levels.
Ease of carrying around: a pocket-sized one may be useful if you are having to check during the day at work.
â ï¸ If you have any concerns about diabetes and your health, your GP should always be your first port of call.
Where Can I Find The National Diabetes Statistics Report
The National Diabetes Statistics Report Cdc-pdf is a periodic publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that provides updated statistics about diabetes in the United States for a scientific audience.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association has recommended screening guidelines.
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Medicine To Control Blood Glucose Insulin
As type 2 diabetes progresses over time, the blood sugar levels naturally tend to rise. This means many people with type 2 diabetes will need insulin at some point in order to feel better, simply because the tablets are no longer strong enough.
Insulin can’t be taken as a tablet and has to be injected.
There are several different types of insulin treatment, which vary in both the insulins used and the number of injections. If you have type 2 diabetes and need insulin, you should usually be offered treatment with a ‘longacting’ insulin that is injected once or twice a day. The insulin used will depend on which suits you best your diabetes care team will talk with you about this.
If you have been taking metformin without any problems you should continue to take this, as well as insulin.
What Insulin Medications Are Approved To Treat Diabetes
There are many types of insulins for diabetes. If you need insulin, you healthcare team will discuss the different types and if they are to be combined with oral medications. To follow is a brief review of insulin types.
- Rapid-acting insulins: These insulins are taken 15 minutes before meals, they peak at one hour and work for another two to four hours. Examples include insulin glulisine , insulin lispro and insulin aspart .
- Short-acting insulins: These insulins take about 30 minutes to reach your bloodstream, reach their peak effects in two to three hours and last for three to six hours. An example is insulin regular .
- Intermediate-acting insulins: These insulins reach your bloodstream in two to four hours, peak in four to 12 hours and work for up to 18 hours. An example in NPH.
- Long-acting insulins: These insulins work to keep your blood sugar stable all day. Usually, these insulins last for about 18 hours. Examples include insulin glargine , insulin detemir and insulin degludec .
There are insulins that are a combination of different insulins. There are also insulins that are combined with a GLP-1 receptor agonist medication .
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Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes can cause serious long-term health problems. It’s the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people of working age.
Everyone with diabetes aged 12 or over should be invited to have their eyes screened once a year for diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetes is also responsible for most cases of kidney failure and lower limb amputation, other than accidents.
Read more about the complications of type 2 diabetes
Different Types Of Gliclazide Tablets
Gliclazide comes as 2 different types of tablets: normal and long acting .
Standard-release tablets release gliclazide into your body quickly, so you may need to take them several times a day depending on your dose.
Slow-release tablets dissolve slowly, which means you do not have to take them as regularly as the standard ones. One dose in the morning is usually enough.
Your doctor or pharmacist will explain what type of gliclazide tablets you’re on and how often to take them.
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Blood Tests Used To Diagnose Diabetes
We will explain below the different blood tests that could be used to diagnose your diabetes. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and will then decide which type of blood test to use.
Having blood tests doesn’t need to be worrying, theyre straightforward and shouldnt take very long. Depending on the test you have you may be required to fast beforehand. If you do need to fast, a healthcare professional will let you know in advance.
How Often Should I Check My Blood Sugar
The number of times that you check your blood sugar will depend on the type of diabetes that you have and the type of medicine you take to treat your diabetes. For example, people who take insulin may need to check more often than people who do not take insulin. Talk with your health care team about how often to check your blood sugar.
The common times for checking your blood sugar are when you first wake up , before a meal, 2 hours after a meal, and at bedtime. Talk with your health care team about what times are best for you to check your blood sugar.
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Ways To Balance Blood Sugar
There are a number of ways that you can regain control of your blood sugar and turn your body into a fat burning machine. To get started, one of the best things you can do is perform a keto metabolic makeover .
For a more comprehensive approach and accelerated results, you may consider working with a health coach that is well-versed in the ketogenic lifestyle. We have a great self-guided ketogenic program that contains all of the information you would need to turn your body into a fat-burning machine.
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Blood Glucose Testing For Type 1 Diabetes
The 2015 NICE guidelines recommend that people with type 1 diabetes test their blood glucose at least 4 times per day, including before each meal and before bed.
Your doctor should also support you to test more regularly to ensure you test at the following times:
- Before driving and at least once every 2 hours on longer journeys
- Before, during and after exercise
- Testing more regularly during periods of illness
- During pregnancy or breastfeeding or when planning pregnancy
- If you are having regular hypos
- If you have an impaired ability to spot hypo symptoms
- If you are not achieving the target HbA1c of 48 mmol/mol
- If taking part in high-risk activities
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What Are Blood Sugar Targets
A blood sugar target is the range you try to reach as much as possible. These are typical targets:
- Before a meal: 80 to 130 mg/dL.
- Two hours after the start of a meal: Less than 180 mg/dL.
Your blood sugar targets may be different depending on your age, any additional health problems you have, and other factors. Be sure to talk to your health care team about which targets are best for you.