What Is Urine Glucose
The process of filtration of blood in the kidney involves several cycles of absorption from, and reabsorption back into, the blood. The initially filtered fluid contains several minerals, water, glucose, and other products like urea and ammonia. A lot of the water, minerals, and glucose is reabsorbed into the blood following the initial filtration. Based on the level of glucose present in the blood, glucose in the initial filtrate is almost entirely reabsorbed when blood sugar is low.
In conditions when blood sugar is extremely high, the kidneys, in their effort to lower blood sugar levels, prevent the reabsorption of glucose back into the blood. This results in the presence of glucose in urine. Glucose in urine is not usually normal and is associated with conditions like diabetes. We look at the causes of sugar in urine in the upcoming section.
Diabetes And The Urine Glucose Test
The most common cause of high levels of glucose in the urine is diabetes. Diabetes is a group of diseases that affects the way the body processes glucose. Normally, a hormone called insulincontrols the amount of glucose in the bloodstream.
In people with diabetes, however, the body either doesnt make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesnt work properly. This causes glucose to build up in the blood. Symptoms of diabetes include:
- slow-healing cuts or sores
What Does The Reading Mean
It is completely normal for blood sugar levels to go up and down a little. This also happens in people who don’t have diabetes. The amount of sugar in your blood is influenced by things like what you eat and drink, how much exercise you get, and what medications you take. Depending on whether blood sugar levels are measured on an empty stomach or immediately after a meal, they vary between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/l in people who don’t have diabetes. There are no clear-cut boundaries between the normal range of blood sugar and high or low blood sugar.
Blood sugar: Normal range between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
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Glycosuria : Symptoms Causes & Treatment
Measuring the amount of sugar in your bloodstream is a normal part of everyday life with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Measuring the sugar in your urine, however, is something we should be doing every now and then at the doctors office, too.
In this article, well discuss what glycosuria is, what causes it, signs and symptoms, and how its treated.
Ce Iso Certificate Medical Disposable One Step Medical Diagnostic Blood Glucose Test Strips Urine Test Strips
these patients may very well be sicker total The complication and death rates from hyperosmolar coma is thus greater than in diabetic ketoacidosis.
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How To Use A Blood Glucose Meter:
- After washing your hands, insert a test strip into your meter.
- Use your lancing device on the side of your fingertip to get a drop of blood.
- Touch and hold the edge of the test strip to the drop of blood and wait for the result.
- Your blood glucose level will appear on the meter’s display.
Note: All meters are slightly different, so always refer to your user’s manual for specific instructions.
When To Seek Medical Care
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Can Urine Tests Diagnose Diabetes
While urine tests can show signs that may signal diabetes, such as elevated sugar or ketones, the diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of blood tests. Urine tests may be done in some cases as back-up testing or for screening to see if blood tests should be done, but the diagnosis of diabetes is made after blood glucose testing.
What Should My Blood Sugar Level Be
The paragraph below gives you an idea of what your blood sugar levels should be. Blood sugar ranges might be different for each person and can change throughout the day. Your health care provider will tell you what range is good for you. Call your health care provider if one of the following applies:
- Your blood sugar test results are higher than usual for more than two days for an unknown reason.
- Your blood sugar level is low more than 2 times a week.
Recommended blood glucose range for people with diabetes
Time of test goal
- Two hours after meal starts: < 180 mg/dl
- Before bedtime snack: 100-150 mg/dl
American Diabetes Association, 2009
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What Happens During A Glucose In Urine Test
Your health care provider will need to collect a sample of your urine. During your office visit, you will receive a container in which to collect the urine and special instructions to ensure the sample is sterile. These instructions are often referred to as the “clean catch method.” The clean catch method includes the following steps:
Your health care provider may ask you to monitor your urine glucose at home with a test kit. He or she will provide you with either a kit or a recommendation of which kit to buy. Your urine glucose test kit will include instructions on how to perform the test and a package of strips for testing. Be sure to follow the kit instructions carefully, and talk to your health care provider if you have any questions.
What Does Urine Glucose Testing Involve
If you sometimes check your diabetes with urine glucose testing, you will be advised which time of day to perform the test. Make sure you understand how to perform the test, and go over the instructions for your brand of test strip with your doctor or diabetes educator.
To perform the test:
- collect a small amount of urine
- expose the test strip or dipstick to the urine, usually by dipping it in the urine sample
- read the test result at the specified time, by comparing the colour change on the test strip with the reference colour chart, which is usually printed on the container.
Its a good idea to write down your test results or keep a chart of them, and take these with you when you see your doctor or diabetes educator. Also note down any special circumstances at the time of the test, for example, if you were unwell, were under emotional stress, had changed the amount or type of food you were eating or were taking medicine to treat another condition.
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How Do I Test My Blood Sugar
The usual blood sugar test involves pricking your finger with a small needle called a lancet, putting a drop of blood on a test strip, and using a meter that displays your blood sugar level. Blood sugar meters and test strips are available at your local pharmacy, through mail order, or through your health care provider. There are many different types of meters. Your health care provider can help you select the meter that is best for you. Some insurance companies might cover the cost of these supplies. Call your insurance company if you have any questions.
What Should I Know About Ketones
Ketones appear in your urine when your body uses its own fat for energy instead of sugar. Ketones usually appear when your blood sugar level is more than 300 mg/dl. If ketones build up in your blood, you can develop a very dangerous health condition known as ketoacidosis. Ketones are most likely to occur in people with Type 1 diabetes.
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Can I Check My Own Blood Sugar
You can do blood sugar level check by doing a finger-prick test, by using a blood sugar monitor called a flash glucose monitor or with a continuous glucose monitor . You can do this several times a day helping you keep an eye on your levels as you go about your life and help you work out what to eat and how much medication to take. Find out your ideal target range.
Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their levels like this. Youll need to if you take certain diabetes medication. Always talk to your healthcare team if youre not sure whether thats you theyll give you advice on whether to check them yourself and how often.
And theres also something called an HbA1c, which is a blood test to measure your average blood sugar level over the last three months. Everyone with diabetes is entitled to this check.
High blood sugar levels increase your risk of developing serious complications. However you manage your diabetes, stay in the know about your blood sugar levels
At The Doctors Office
Your doctor will provide instructions on how to give the sample and where to leave it when youre done. In general, this is what can be expected during an office urine test:
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How Long Does It Take To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes
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Why Do I Have To Test My Blood Sugar
Testing your blood sugar is the best way to find out how well your diabetes is controlled. A log book of your blood sugar levels will help you see how food, physical activity, and diabetes medicines affect your blood sugar. If your blood sugar is too low or too high, your health care provider might want to adjust your diet, exercise, or the amount of medicine you are taking. Take your log book with you whenever you visit your health care provider.
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Other Tips For Checking:
- With some meters, you can also use your forearm, thigh, or fleshy part of your hand.
- There are spring-loaded lancing devices that make sticking yourself less painful.
- If you use your fingertip, stick the side of your fingertip by your fingernail to avoid having sore spots on the frequently used part of your finger.
Ketone Levels And What They Mean
If you have diabetes, you will want to understand the difference between trace, moderate, and high ketone levels and what to do in each circumstance. Ketones typically develop when blood glucose levels are high.
People with diabetes can develop trace, moderate, and high ketone levels for a variety of reasons. Some reasons for ketone development include:
- Accidentally or purposefully missing insulin doses
- Inability to eat
- Issues with insulin: For example, it has gone bad due to extreme temperatures
- Insulin pump malfunctions: A kinked or dislodged cannula, interruption of insulin due to a low insulin reservoir, a battery that has died, a leak
- Infection or illness: Can increase glucose levels due to counterregulatory hormones , which requires more insulin to maintain normal blood sugar
- Surgery: Post-operative hyperglycemia requires more insulin due to the stress response.
- Delayed diagnosis of diabetes: Usually type 1 diabetes
Your medical team should provide you with a plan on what to do in the event that you have ketones.
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Diabetes Testing And Monitoring
If you have diabetes, blood glucose monitoring can help you keep your glucose levels within a target range by balancing food, exercise and insulin, reducing your chances of diabetes complications. A range of testing and monitoring equipment is available to help people manage their diabetes. Your doctor or diabetes nurse or educator can advise you on the most appropriate equipment for you and your situation.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends that if you have type 2 diabetes and take oral medication only, you should talk to your doctor or specialist about the need to test your blood sugar levels at home, as most people in this situation do not need to do this type of monitoring. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.
What Tests Do I Need To Do At Home
- Blood test: The blood test is used to measure the amount of sugar in your blood. It will help you find out if your meal plan, exercise, and medicine are working to control your blood sugar.
- Urine test: The urine test looks for ketones in your urine. This can be done if you are sick or if your blood sugar level is very high. Meters are also available that can test your blood for ketones.
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How To Test Ketones
Ketones can be tested at home via urine using a urine ketone strip or a blood ketone meter. To use a urine ketone strip, the strip is dipped into your urine sample and the color change is compared to a provided color array.
To use a blood ketone meter, you stick your finger with a lancet to draw blood and apply a drop to the strip inserted into the meter. The meter provides a result.
Experts suggest using a blood ketone meter because it can detect ketones before they show up in the urine. In addition, results from urine can be skewed due to other circumstances such as dehydration.
However, clinicians acknowledge that blood ketone test strips and meters are more expensive than urine strips. Call your healthcare provider to see if your insurance covers a blood ketone meter and test strips. If they do not, ask your physician if urine ketone strips are sufficient.