How High Blood Sugar Creates Hba1c
Red blood cells are exposed to glucose in the blood. The higher the blood glucose level gets the more HbA1c forms throughout the lifespan of a red blood cell .
The lifespan of a red blood cell varies from person to person but averages out to approximately 117 days in men and 106 days in women. Therefore, the HbA1c is an index of average blood sugar levels over the preceding 2 to 3 months. Of this 2 3 month period, the immediately preceding 30 days contribute 50% to HbA1c .
Normal adult hemoglobin consists predominantly of HbA1, of which HbA1c comprises approximately 5% .
However, HbA1c does not always correlate with blood glucose levels. It is possible to have high blood glucose but low HbA1c due to the presence of hemoglobin variants, inflammation, or other factors that increase red blood cell turn over.
If your red blood cells live longer than 90 days or they are smaller , then your HbA1C will be artificially higher.
The Problem Of High Blood Sugar
Namely, Hyperglycemia is the treatment term for blood sugar. It happens when your body does not have enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. But, Blood glucose levels can rise due to many reasons, such as type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, stress, illness, or morning events.
However, If you have or doubt you may have hyperglycemia, it is always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider. And, A doctor can help you determine what can cause high blood sugar levels and lower them to a healthy range.
Here are some common symptoms, such as:
- And, Visual impairment
Prediabetes Causes And Risk Factors
Youâre more likely to get prediabetes if you:
- Are older, especially over age 45
- Have a waist larger than 40 inches around if youâre a man and 35 inches around if youâre a woman.
- Eat a lot of red and processed meat, drink sugary beverages, and donât eat much fruit, veggies, nuts, whole grains, or olive oil
- Are Black, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander
- Are overweight or obese, especially if you have extra pounds around your middle
- Have a sleep problem, like sleep apnea, or work changing shifts or night shifts
Get tested for prediabetes if those things apply to you and if you:
- Have had an unusual blood sugar reading
- Show signs of insulin resistance, which means your body makes insulin but doesn’t respond to it the way it should. These include darkened areas of skin, trouble concentrating, and more fatigue or hunger than usual.
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Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes
Prediabetes has a hereditary factor. If someone in your immediate family has T2Dor has had T2D in the pastyou are more likely to develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes yourself.
Your race and ethnicity also affect your likelihood of developing prediabetes. There is a genetic component, but research has shown that racial disparities in who develops diabetes have more to do with socio-economic status and the accessibility of health care and healthy food in your community than your genes.
For Children With Type 1
While some diabetes organizations may suggest lower targets, the generally recommended A1c level for children with type 1 diabetes is under 7.5%. However, , which involves a special wearable device that constantly monitors blood glucose, is thought to be a better approach. This is partly because only about a quarter of children with type 1 meet this A1c standard.
The target glucose level for newly diagnosed children using CGM is generally around 150 mg/dL, with some variation allowed during sleep hours .
Children who have been diagnosed for some time and already have an established treatment plan might have a more aggressive target of around 120 mg/dL. As with adults, time in range for children with type 1 diabetes is typically around 70% .
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Recommended Target Blood Glucose Level Ranges
The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes.
In addition, the International Diabetes Federations target ranges for people without diabetes is stated.
The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for.
|Target Levels by Type|
*The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines.
What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level For Diabetics
A normal blood sugar level for diabetics is more difficult to define because it can vary greatly from person to person and the normal range varies depending on ones age.
What’s important is that you work with your doctor to set goals that are achievable as well as safe for you and that you maintain good blood sugar control as much as possible.
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What Are Common Complications From Living With Diabetes
- Over time, diabetes can damage arteries, which may result in high blood pressure.
- If not controlled, this can lead to stroke, heart failure or heart attack.
- People with diabetes need to keep their blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
- Kidney damage can develop in some people with diabetes.
- If left untreated, this can lead to more severe kidney damage or kidney failure.
- If you have diabetes, you should have your kidney function tested regularly.
Did You Know?
A healthcare provider can help with monitoring blood glucose levels, as well as ensuring that necessary preventive care treatments and advice are received in a timely manner.
- Diabetic eye disease can lead to loss of vision and blindness.
- Regular eye exams can help find problems that can be treated if found early.
Lower Limb Amputation
- Over time, diabetes can damage sensory nerves, especially in the hands and feet.
- As a result, people with diabetes may not feel a foot injury, such as a blister or cut. Even a small injury, if left untreated, can quickly become infected. This can lead to serious complications such as amputation.
- People with diabetes should regularly check their feet and skin for ulcers and wounds .
People with diabetes are likely to develop other conditions such as dental disease and mental illness .
Normal Blood Sugar Range For Pregnancy With Diabetes
Namely, Whether you had diabetes before you became pregnant or developed diabetes during pregnancy, you need to know your blood sugar ranges. Besides, Strict control will help avoid complications and long-term health problems for both you and your baby.
However, You are eating separately because your body needs more energy for your baby to grow and be healthy. And how your altered hormones affect how your body makes and uses insulin. Also, You may become more insulin resistant later in your pregnancy, thus creating higher levels of blood sugar.
Besides, If you are pregnant and have type 1 diabetes, your doctor may occasionally ask for your blood sugar at around 3 am to midnight. Also, Your doctor may also recommend that you regularly check the ketones of fasting urine. However, If you are pregnant with all types of diabetes, you should see your doctor at least once a month, probably once a week.
You have to maintain these things should be:
- Fasting and before the meal: less than 95 ml/DL
- Also, 2 hours after a meal: 120 mg/DL
- And, A1c: Less than or around 6.0%
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How To Calculate Your Blood Sugar Level: The Complete Guide
To get an accurate reading of your blood sugar level, the best and most effective method is using a glucose meter. This will involve a small prick in your finger so receive a blood sample. The strip is then inserted into the meter and tested.
You may be wondering what your reading should be. There is no normal reading, an ideal reading differs from person to person. Everyone will get different readings at different times of the day. However, there is a rough range to determining a low, normal and high blood sugar level. Blood sugar level is read in mmol/L, which stands for millimoles per liter. Here is a guide as to what an ideal reading is for each diabetic type and non-diabetic patients:
|4 5.9 mmol/L< 7.8 mmol/L||4 5.9 mmol/L< 7.8 mmol/L|
It is advised to check it regularly if you are concerned, show regular symptoms or have diabetes. You should check before meals, exercise, before bedtime and after driving. Everyone is different so it is best to ask your doctor if you are unsure how many times and when you should check your blood sugar levels.
Research shows that over 50% who try to estimate their blood sugar level reading are incorrect. This may be due to over underlying medical conditions that did not know they had or poor lack of judgement. Therefore, this suggests it is very important to test at home to check in on your levels regularly to avoid any unnecessary future complications.
Skinny Fat And An A1c Of 59
So how did your A1C get to be 5.9 if youre not overweight? Chances are, youre skinny fat.
This means you look between thin and proportionate, but have a high ratio of body fat relative to lean muscle mass, like the woman to the left below.
Its even more dangerous when a lot of fat is concentrated in the abdomen. The cure is to adhere to the exercise guidelines above.
Link Between Sleep and Insulin Resistance
Sleep deprivation and insomnia are strongly associated with insulin resistance, the precursor to diabetes.
One study showed that a single night of deprived sleep can cause insulin resistance.
A1C of 5.9: How Low Should You Go?
The A1c range for prediabetes is 5.7 to 6.4 percent. An A1c of 5.6 is as good as one of 5.0, so there is no need to push lower once youre below 5.7.
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What To Do If Your A1c Is 59
An A1c of 5.9 falls into the prediabetic range between 5.7 and 6.4. People with prediabetes are likely to get type 2 diabetes within 10 years unless they make serious changes to their lifestyle.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 means that your body still produces insulin but isnt using it properly. Many people can control their blood sugar levels with lifestyle changes while others may need insulin or other medications to manage it.
Keep an eye on your blood sugar by testing at home. Its easier than ever and there are a variety of affordable blood glucose monitors available.
A prediabetes A1c reading is a call to action. At a minimum youll need to make some lifestyle changes. You and your doctor can discuss whether medication is necessary.
Treatment For High Blood Sugar Levels
For those with high blood sugar levels, it is vital to keep track of your blood sugars at home on a daily basis. This can be done with a glucose meter. These test monitors are often provided to diabetic patients so that they can manage their blood sugar levels at home everyday. They are available to purchase online if you are non-diabetic but wish to check on your levels regularly for safety.
Diabetic patients can be prescribed medications to help with insulin levels when their blood sugar is high. Those with type 1 diabetes will be prescribed medication which needs to be taken several times daily. This type of diabetes has no cure but can be managed with the right medication.
Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes can treat their high blood sugar with a change in diet or exercise. A healthier balanced diet is usually advised and sometimes, insulin medication is also prescribed if the blood sugar level becomes abnormally higher than the high reading for diabetic patients.
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Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart
Every substance present in our body has an optimum level. Above or below that specific range, that particular substance is harmful to our health. And so is sugar. There is a certain range of blood sugar which is considered as standard for almost all age. However, there might be some changes in the level considering different factors like age and other co-morbidities. Lets look at the chart:
Sometimes, random blood is also taken. In this case, the glucose level of 200 mg/dl is considered a diabetic condition.
Going through the chart you will notice certain terms regarding blood sugar which you need to understand in order to evaluate your own glucose level. So, I will just give a small brief regarding those:
- Fasting blood glucose: Here, blood sugar is tested after abstaining from food and drink for at least 8 hours.
- Postprandial blood sugar:In this case, blood sugar is tested 2 hours after a meal to access if its at the optimum level after having a meal or not.
- Random blood glucose: Blood is tested at any time of the day.
- HbA1c: It refers to a blood test which is done to evaluate the average level of blood glucose over the past 3 months. HbA1c is also known as glycosylated haemoglobin or A1C. Moreover, fasting is not required before carrying out the test.
Is There A Prediabetes Diet
Thereâs no official diet, but four swaps can reverse prediabetes and lower your chances of getting type 2 diabetes:
- Choose whole grains and whole-grain products over processed carbs like white bread, potatoes, and breakfast cereals.
- Drink coffee, water, and tea instead of sugary drinks.
- Choose good fats like those in vegetable oil, nuts, and seeds over those in margarine, baked goods, and fried foods.
- Trade red meat and processed meats for nuts, whole grains, poultry, and fish.
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How Do I Check My Blood Sugar
Checking your blood sugar is simple and can be done at home with the right equipment. The most traditional and effective way of doing so is with a glucose meter. You wash your hands to wash away germs, prick your finger with a needle, apply the blood from the pricked finger to a test strip and insert it into the machine. Your blood sugar level will appear on the meters display. Alternatively, there are a few modern methods that have been developed. They show results but are considered not to be as accurate as glucose meters.
When To Speak To Your Doctor
If you try eating earlier, sticking to healthier meals, and exercising without seeing a drop in your fasting blood glucose, it might be time to speak to your doctor about further testing.
Tests like the HbA1c can help your doctor confirm whether youd benefit from medical treatment. This test shows your average blood glucose levels over the last 3 months.
Your doctor may recommend controlling your fasting blood sugar level through diet or exercise if its high enough to suggest prediabetes.
If type 2 diabetes is developing, they may prescribe medication or insulin injections if it becomes moderate to severe, but its possible for many people to manage type 2 diabetes with exercise and diet alone.
If you already have a diabetes diagnosis and take insulin, speak to your healthcare provider about whether they can change your dose or type of insulin or recommend a shift in your medication schedule.
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What Is Blood Glucose
Blood glucose is the main sugar content in your blood. Usually it’s expressed in mg/dL or mmol/L . It comes from the food you eat, and it’s your body’s main source of energy. Blood glucose levels are a measure of how much sugar is in your blood. Blood sugar levels can fluctuate depending on the time of the day due to a number of reasons. What we eat, how active we are, any medications we take, and even stress can all affect our blood sugar levels.
What Is Borderline Diabetes
Some people use the term borderline diabetes to refer to prediabetes. Prediabetes is a term used by medical professionals and is a condition that may occur before a person develops type 2 diabetes.
Also known as impaired fasting glucose or glucose intolerance, prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but theyre not quite high enough to be considered a sign of diabetes.
During the prediabetes phase, your pancreas still produces enough insulin in response to ingested carbohydrates. But the insulin is less effective at removing the sugar from the bloodstream, so your blood sugar remains high. This condition is called insulin resistance.
If you have prediabetes, you should know youre not alone. In 2019, it was estimated that 96 million adults in the United States were diagnosed with prediabetes, which translates to around 1 in 3 adults.
Having prediabetes doesnt mean youll definitely develop diabetes. But its important to make changes to your diet and lifestyle to prevent the condition from progressing.
In fact, its estimated that between 15% to 30% of people with prediabetes will develop diabetes within the next 3-5 years if no lifestyle changes are made.
Someone with insulin resistance in its early stages can develop type 2 diabetes if it continues long enough.
But prediabetes doesnt usually cause any symptoms and only
With modest weight loss and exercise, study participants reduced their risk of developing diabetes by 58% over 3 years.
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