Wednesday, December 7, 2022

Is Diabetes Low Or High Sugar

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Talk To Your Doctor Or Nurse

Type 1 Diabetes: Low Blood Sugar At School

If you use insulin and your blood sugar is frequently or consistently low, ask your doctor or nurse if you:

  • Are injecting your insulin the right way
  • Need a different type of needle
  • Should change how much insulin you take
  • Should change the kind of insulin you take

DO NOT make any changes without talking to your doctor or nurse first.

Sometimes hypoglycemia can be due to taking the wrong medicines. Check your medicines with your pharmacist.

How Potassium Affects How Much Insulin You Make

Weight gain is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. The hormone insulin moves sugar from your blood into your cells, to use for energy or put into storage. When you have extra fat, insulin can’t move sugar into your cells as well, so your blood sugar rises.

If your potassium levels are too low, your body may make less insulin. That could lead to high blood sugar. Studies show that people with low potassium levels release less insulin, have higher blood sugar levels, and are more likely to get type 2 diabetes than those with normal potassium levels.

There isn’t enough evidence to prove that low potassium directly causes diabetes. Still, it might be a good idea to have your doctor check your potassium level if you’re already at risk for diabetes.

How Are High Blood Sugar Levels Treated

Treating high blood sugar levels involves fixing what caused them in the first place. Your diabetes health care team will give you specific advice on how to keep your blood sugar levels in a healthy range. But here are some ways to manage the common causes of high blood sugar levels:

Reason for High Blood Sugar Level What to Do
Not getting enough insulin or other diabetes medicine
  • Make sure that you take the proper type of insulin and the correct dose at the right time.
  • Check that insulin is not expired.
  • Make sure that all equipment is working properly.
  • Diabetes medicines may need to be changed or adjusted check with your diabetes health care team.
Not following the meal plan
  • Work with a registered dietitian to make adjustments to your meal plan as needed.
  • Adjust insulin/pills when you eat more or less than recommended on your meal plan .
Not getting enough exercise
  • Figure out a plan to make time for exercise.
  • Adjust your medicines based on the diabetes health care team’s instructions.
Illness or stress
  • Contact your diabetes health care team.
  • Continue to take insulin .
  • Check your blood sugar levels frequently.
Use of other medicines that can increase blood sugar
  • Contact your diabetes health care team if you start taking any other medicine.
  • Your insulin or pills may need to be adjusted while you take the medicine that’s causing high blood sugar levels.
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When To Contact A Doctor About Dizziness

Anyone experiencing regular dizziness should contact a doctor. They may wish to consider keeping track of when they feel dizzy to help a doctor identify any patterns.

The doctor may carry out a physical examination and assess any other symptoms. They may check blood sugar levels and review the personâs medications to determine the cause of the dizziness.

Treating or managing the underlying causes of dizziness in type 2 diabetes may help resolve dizziness.

Are Sugar Substitutes Okay For People With Diabetes

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Because type 2 diabetes is linked to high levels of sugar in the blood, it may seem logical to assume that eating too much sugar is the cause of the disease. But of course, its not that simple. This has been around for years, this idea that eating too much sugar causes diabetes but the truth is, type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease with many different types of causes, says Lynn Grieger, RDN, CDE, a nutrition coach in Prescott, Arizona, and a medical reviewer for Everyday Health. Type 2 diabetes is really complex.

That said, some research does suggest that eating too many sweetened foods can affect type 2 diabetes risk, and with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimating that 30.3 million Americans have the disease and that millions of more individuals are projected to develop it, too understanding all the risk factors for the disease, including sugar consumption, is essential to help reverse the diabetes epidemic.

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How Can I Treat High Blood Sugar

Talk to your doctor about how to keep your blood sugar levels within your target range. Your doctor may suggest the following:

  • Be more active. Regular exercise can help keep your blood sugar levels on track. Important: dont exercise if ketones are present in your urine. This can make your blood sugar go even higher.
  • Take medicine as instructed. If your blood sugar is often high, your doctor may change how much medicine you take or when you take it.
  • Follow your diabetes meal plan. Ask your doctor or dietitian for help if youre having trouble sticking to it.
  • Check your blood sugar as directed by your doctor. Check more often if youre sick or if youre concerned about high or low blood sugar.
  • Talk to your doctor about adjusting how much insulin you take and what types of insulin to use.

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When the body doesn’t have enough insulin, glucose stays in the blood and can’t get into the body’s cells to be used for energy. This can happen, for example, when someone skips doses of insulin or when the need for insulin suddenly increases and the doses are not adjusted.

When the body can’t use glucose for fuel, it starts to use fat. When this happens, chemicals called ketones are released into the blood. Some of these ketones, like extra glucose, pass out of the body through the urine.

High levels of ketones in the blood can be a problem because they cause the blood to become acidic. Too much acid in the blood throws off the body’s chemical balance and causes the symptoms listed below. In people with diabetes, this problem is called diabetic , or DKA. DKA is a very serious condition that can lead to coma or death if it’s not treated. The good news, though, is that it’s preventable and can be treated.

DKA happens more often in people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes also happen to those with type 2 diabetes.

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Symptoms Of High Sugar Levels

One or more of the following symptoms are common when blood glucose levels are too high:

  • Increased urination
  • Dry eyes
  • Blurred vision

If sugar levels are regularly too high for a number of days or weeks, the following symptoms may also berecognised:

  • Loss of weight, particularly muscle mass
  • Regular urinary tract infections
  • Regular episodes of thrush

Note that in people that are overweight, loss of weight may sometimes be more recognisable as a loss of muscle mass.

High blood sugar can be uncomfortable and can increase the risk of developing long term complications if extended periods of hyperglycemia become a regular occurrence.

  • Read more about hyperglycemia.

What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar Levels

DIABETES HIGH & LOW BLOOD SUGAR

Signs of high blood sugar levels include:

  • Peeing a lot: The kidneys respond by flushing out the extra glucose in urine. People with high blood sugar need to pee more often and in larger amounts.
  • Drinking a lot: Someone losing so much fluid from peeing that often can get very thirsty.
  • Losing weight even though your appetite has stayed the same: If there isn’t enough insulin to help the body use glucose, the body breaks down muscle and stored fat instead in an attempt to provide fuel to hungry cells.
  • Feeling tired: Because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly, a person may feel unusually tired.
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A Low Blood Sugar Level Without Diabetes

A low blood sugar level is uncommon in people who do not have diabetes.

Possible causes include:

  • a gastric bypass
  • other medical conditions, such as problems with your hormone levels, pancreas, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands or heart
  • some medicines, including quinine

See a GP if you think you keep getting symptoms of a low blood sugar level. They can arrange some simple tests to check if your blood sugar level is low and try to find out what’s causing it.

Signs And Symptoms Of Low Blood Sugar

Each person’s reaction to low blood sugar is different. Learn your own signs and symptoms of when your blood sugar is low. Taking time to write these symptoms down may help you learn your own symptoms of when your blood sugar is low. From milder, more common indicators to most severe, signs and symptoms of low blood sugar include:

  • Feeling shaky
  • Color draining from the skin
  • Feeling sleepy
  • Feeling weak or having no energy
  • Blurred/impaired vision
  • Tingling or numbness in the lips, tongue or cheeks
  • Headaches
  • Nightmares or crying out during sleep
  • Seizures

The only sure way to know whether you are experiencing low blood sugar is to check your blood sugar, if possible. If you are experiencing symptoms and you are unable to check your blood sugar for any reason, treat the hypoglycemia.

A low blood sugar level triggers the release of epinephrine , the fight-or-flight hormone. Epinephrine is what can cause the symptoms of hypoglycemia such as thumping heart, sweating, tingling and anxiety.

If the blood sugar level continues to drop, the brain does not get enough glucose and stops functioning as it should. This can lead to blurred vision, difficulty concentrating, confused thinking, slurred speech, numbness, and drowsiness. If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma and very rarely death.

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Target Blood Sugar Ranges For Pregnant People With Diabetes

Blood sugar targets during pregnancy are lower due to hormonal influences. The ADA, AACE, and Joslin Diabetes Center have slightly different guidelines for target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. In general, pregnant women with diabetes will want to follow individual guidelines provided by their endocrinologist.

The ADA recommends maintaining blood sugar levels of 95-140 mg/dL for pregnant women. However, some providers recommend an even tighter goal of blood glucose levels below 89 mg/dL before a meal and below 120 mg/dL after a meal.

To keep close tabs on levels, most diabetes specialists recommend that women with diabetes during pregnancy check their blood sugar:

  • First thing in the morning
  • Before all meals

Signs And Symptoms Of Hypoglycemia

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The good news is that you can use test strips or a continuous glucose monitor to measure your blood sugar levels, past research establishes. Its important to know that some people can feel symptoms of low blood glucose even if the blood sugar is normal, called pseudohypoglycemia. On the flip side, some mild cases of low blood sugar may not cause any symptoms at all. This is where regular at-home testing becomes important if you have diabetes, especially if you have type 1 diabetes, as established by previous research.

One of the first physical symptoms of hypoglycemia is hunger. At first, you might pass this off as being hangry if you have other symptoms like irritability from not eating in a while. But aside from hunger and irritability, the Mayo Clinic outlines other early signs of hypoglycemia, such as:

  • Shakiness, which is especially noticeable in your hands
  • Anxiety
  • Concentration difficulties
  • Increased heart rate

In more severe or prolonged hypoglycemia, loss of consciousness and seizure are also possible.

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Causes Of Low Blood Sugar

Low blood sugar is common for people with type 1 diabetes and can occur in people with type 2 diabetes taking insulin or certain medications. The average person with type 1 diabetes may experience up to two episodes of mild low blood sugar each week, and thats only counting episodes with symptoms. If you add in lows without symptoms and the ones that happen overnight, the number would likely be higher.

Treating And Managing Hyperglycaemia

If your blood sugar level is slightly high for a short time, emergency treatment wont be necessary. But if it continues to rise you may need to act fast to avoid developing diabetic ketoacidosis .

If your blood sugar level is 15 mmol/l or more, you should check your blood or urine for ketones. If ketones are present, it is likely that you do not have enough insulin in your body. This means you may need to increase your dose or give yourself an extra dose. Talk to your diabetes team about how to do this if you are unsure.

You should also try to drink plenty of sugar-free fluids to prevent dehydration. And if you are feeling unwell, especially if you are vomiting, you should follow any sick day rules you have been given and contact your diabetes healthcare team for advice.

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Why Your Blood Sugar Level May Be Low

If blood sugar drops below 70 mg/dL, it is below normal levels. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:

  • Not eating enough or missing a meal or snack
  • Reducing the amount of carbohydrates you normally eat
  • Alcohol consumption especially if youre drinking on an empty stomach
  • Taking too much insulin or oral diabetes medication based on carbohydrates or activity levels
  • Increased physical activity
  • Side effects from medications

If you have diabetes, keep your blood glucose meter and sources of fast-acting glucose close by in case your blood sugar drops. This is especially important for people with hypoglycemia unawareness, which is a condition that causes symptoms of low blood sugar to go unnoticed.

Eating balanced meals and snacks at regular times throughout the day is a big part of maintaining normal blood glucose levels. Check out our article on meal planning for diabetes to better understand the three macronutrients where calories come from and which have the biggest effect on blood sugar.

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Everyone will respond differently to certain factors, which is why its important to have individualized target glucose levels. To help you reach your target blood glucose goals, work with your healthcare provider to discuss modifications to your diet, physical activity, or medications, and alert them of other factors like a recent illness or stressful event.

Learn How To Deal With High Blood Sugar Levels

Low Blood Sugar! – All About Hypoglycemia

Be sure to know the steps for dealing with high blood sugar and how fast your insulin medicine will work to bring your blood sugar down. Some insulins work very fast while regular insulin takes a little longer to bring the sugar level down. Knowing how fast your insulin works will keep you from using too much too quickly.

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How To Treat Someone Who’s Unconscious Or Very Sleepy

Follow these steps:

  • Put the person in the recovery position and do not put anything in their mouth so they do not choke.
  • If an injection of glucagon is available and you know how to use it, give it to them immediately.
  • If they wake up within 10 minutes of getting the injection and feel better, move on to step 5. If they do not improve within 10 minutes, call 999 for an ambulance.
  • If they’re fully awake and able to eat and drink safely, give them a carbohydrate snack.
  • They may need to go to hospital if they’re being sick , or their blood sugar level drops again.

    Tell your diabetes care team if you ever have a severe hypo that caused you to lose consciousness.

    Target Blood Sugar Levels For People With Diabetes

    People with diabetes have difficulty creating or using enough insulin, which is the hormone that helps convert glucose into energy. Although there is no universal blood sugar chart for everyone with diabetes, clinical organizations like the ADA and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists offer guidelines on target blood sugar levels as a starting point.

    Healthcare providers typically tailor normal blood sugar target ranges to an individual diabetes care plan. This includes considering your:

    • Age

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    What Is The A1c Test

    The A1C test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 2 or 3 months. The test is done at a lab or your doctors office in addition tonot instead ofregular blood sugar testing you do yourself.

    A1C testing is part of the ABCs of diabetesimportant steps you can take to prevent or delay health complications down the road:

    The A1C goal for most adults with diabetes is between 7% and 8%, but your goal may be different depending on your age, other health conditions, medicines youre taking, and other factors. Work with your doctor to establish a personal A1C goal for you.

    How Does Hyperglycemia Happen

    Low Blood Sugar Symptoms

    Insulin is a hormone that lets your body use the sugar in your blood, which comes primarily from carbohydrates in the food that you eat. Hyperglycemia happens when your body has too little insulin to use the sugar in your blood.

    People with type 1 diabetes can have episodes of hyperglycemia every day. Although this can be frustrating, it rarely creates a medical emergency. Not taking enough insulin can lead to hyperglycemia .

    Other things that can cause hyperglycemia include:

    • Caffeine
    • Having trouble seeing or concentrating
    • Experiencing stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting
    • Having sweet-smelling or fruity breath
    • Cuts or sores that do not heal, infections, and unexplained weight loss may also be signs of long-term hyperglycemia.

    If you notice any of these symptoms, you should check your blood sugar. If your blood sugar is very high, you should also test for ketones in either your blood or urine.

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