How Do You Treat Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia treatment involves medication to lower blood glucose levels. Doctors prescribe various oral medicines to accomplish this in people with . Insulin is necessary for people with and sometimes for people with type 2 diabetes.
When blood sugar levels are dangerously high, treatment in the hospital is necessary. Doctors use IV fluids, electrolytes and insulin to safely lower blood glucose to a normal range.
What Is Neuropathy And What Causes It When You Have Diabetes
First, know that neuropathy is nerve damage to cells that can occur anywhere in the body, though the condition often exhibits in feet and hands. In people with diabetes, high blood sugar levels, or persistent hyperglycemia, can cause neuropathy, not to mention a slew of other potential diabetes complications. Meanwhile, in those people with poor circulation a common side effect of diabetes a lack of blood flow and oxygen to hard-to-reach nerves can cause further damage and cell death.
Why You Still Need To Exercise If You Have Diabetes
Despite all of the excuses you may come up with to skip the gym when you have neuropathy, you have even more reasons to make exercise a priority if youre managing this complication. Thats because exercise is actually good for neuropathy.
One of the best ways to prevent progression of diabetic neuropathy is to stay active, Machowsky says. For instance, in one study published in September 2012 in the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, all it took was 10 weeks of exercise to significantly reduce pain and symptoms in men and women with diabetes-related neuropathy. In that time frame, the participants nerve health and function also improved.
Thats not exactly surprising when you consider what researchers already know about the benefits of exercise for diabetes. Physical activity is a great way to keep your blood sugar levels in check, improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce inflammation, Machowsky says. Plus, by undoing some of the blood vessel damage that can occur with diabetes, exercise can help increase the flow of blood, oxygen, and other nutrients to nerve cells, further helping to improve neuropathic symptoms.
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How Can I Pay For Tests And Diabetes Supplies
Medicareexternal icon, Medicaid, and most private insurance plans pay for the A1C test and fasting blood sugar test as well as some diabetes supplies. Check your plan or ask your health care team for help finding low-cost or free supplies, and see How to Save Money on Diabetes Care for more resources.
Signs That May Indicate You Are At Risk For Diabetes
**This article is a repost of an earlier written article. We are reposting because we believe the information is valuable and pertinent to many.**
According to the CDC, over 9% of Americans are living with diabetes. This illness is becoming increasingly common, with 1.5 million Americans being diagnosed with diabetes every year.
There are some serious complications that can come with having high blood sugar such as heart failure and stroke. However, diabetes can be managed with prescription medication, diet, and exercise to help you live a normal, healthy life.
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Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels
Blood glucose levels can be measured easily at home or anywhere.
A fingerstick glucose test is most often used to monitor blood glucose. Most blood glucose monitoring devices use a drop of blood obtained by pricking the tip of the finger with a small lancet. The lancet holds a tiny needle that can be jabbed into the finger or placed in a spring-loaded device that easily and quickly pierces the skin. Most people find that the pricking causes only minimal discomfort. Then, a drop of blood is placed on a reagent strip. The strip contains chemicals that undergo changes depending on the glucose level. The glucose meter reads the changes in the test strip and reports the result on a digital display. Some devices allow the blood sample to be obtained from other sites, such as the palm, forearm, upper arm, thigh, or calf. Home glucose meters are smaller than a deck of cards.
Continuous glucose monitoring systems use a small glucose sensor placed under the skin. The sensor measures blood glucose levels every few minutes. There are two types of CGMs, with different purposes:
Professional CGMs collect continuous blood glucose information over a period of time . Health care providers use this information to make treatment recommendations. Professional CGMs do not provide data to the person with diabetes.
Signs & Symptoms Of Hyperglycemia
The symptoms of hyperglycemia are similar to those that happen when someone is diagnosed with diabetes, such as:
- Frequent urination: The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream by flushing out the extra glucose in urine . A child with diabetes who has hyperglycemia may need to pee more often and in larger volumes.
- Extreme thirst: Kids with hyperglycemia who lose a lot of fluid from urinating often become very thirsty and may drink a lot in an attempt to prevent dehydration.
- Weight loss despite increased appetite: Without enough insulin to help the body use glucose, the body breaks down muscle and stored fat in an attempt to provide fuel to hungry cells.
- Fatigue: Because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly, kids with hyperglycemia may be unusually tired.
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See A Podiatrist Regularly To Treat Foot Problems
Even seemingly harmless calluses may become problems if you ignore them, notes Tillett. When building your diabetes healthcare team, consider including a podiatrist, a doctor who specializes in foot care, instead of heading to the pharmacy for an over-the-counter product for feet some products are irritating to your skin and can actually increase the risk of infection even while they treat the bunion, callus, or corn on your foot.
Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes
These tend to show up after your glucose has been high for a long time.
- Yeast infections. Both men and women with diabetes can get these. Yeast feeds on glucose, so having plenty around makes it thrive. Infections can grow in any warm, moist fold of skin, including:
- Between fingers and toes
- Under breasts
- In or around sex organs
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Balance And Stability Work
By damaging nerve function and sensation in your feet, diabetes-related neuropathy greatly increases your risk of falls, according to a review published in December 2014 in the International Journal of Nursing Sciences. It notes that in one previous study of older adults, those with diabetes-related neuropathy were 23 times more likely to suffer a fall compared with those without. Thats where balance and stability work comes in: training your muscles and the neurons in charge of them to properly fire and work together, Machowsky says. The most important muscles for keeping you upright are found in your feet, legs, and core.
Try to integrate some sort of balance or stability work into every workout. Perform one-legged exercises , practice walking from heel to toe in a straight line, and complete core exercises, including planks, dead-bugs, bird-dogs, and cable chops, he says.
How To Test For Ketones
You can use a urine test strip or blood ketone meter and ketone test strip to test for ketones at home. Testing either urine or blood is important, but when possible, a blood test is preferred because it gives you and your care team more precise information about your ketone levels. Because urine may have been in the bladder for some time, the results from these tests may show levels that are either higher or lower than the ketone levels that are actually circulating in your body. It is also very important to know that urine test trips degrade over time, so if you are using this method, you need to look at expiration dates carefully.
Your diabetes care team can give you specific directions about when you should check for ketones, but in general, you should check for them when your blood glucose is 240 mg/dL or higher. You should also check for ketones if you notice any of the DKA symptoms listed above or if you are sick it is possible to have ketones while your blood glucose levels are within range .
At-home urine test strips will change color to show the level of ketones in the urine. They typically report results as negative, trace, small, moderate or large. Blood ketone meters will provide a number that indicates the ketone levels. The following ranges are generally used:
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What Causes Low Blood Sugar
Low blood sugar has many causes, including missing a meal, taking too much insulin, taking other diabetes medicines, exercising more than normal, and drinking alcohol. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL is considered low.
Signs of low blood sugar are different for everyone. Common symptoms include:
Know what your individual symptoms are so you can catch low blood sugar early and treat it. If you think you may have low blood sugar, check it even if you dont have symptoms. Low blood sugar can be dangerous and should be treated as soon as possible.
Early Signs Of Diabetes
Both types of diabetes have some of the same telltale warning signs.
- Hunger and fatigue. Your body converts the food you eat into glucose that your cells use for energy. But your cells need insulin to take in glucose. If your body doesn’t make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can’t get into them and you have no energy. This can make you hungrier and more tired than usual.
- Peeing more often and being thirstier. The average person usually has to pee between four and seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may go a lot more. Why? Normally, your body reabsorbs glucose as it passes through your kidneys. But when diabetes pushes your blood sugar up, your kidneys may not be able to bring it all back in. This causes the body to make more urine, and that takes fluids. The result: You’ll have to go more often. You might pee out more, too. Because you’re peeing so much, you can get very thirsty. When you drink more, you’ll also pee more.
- Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because your body is using fluids to make pee, there’s less moisture for other things. You could get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itchy.
- Blurred vision. Changing fluid levels in your body could make the lenses in your eyes swell up. They change shape and canÃ¢â¬â¢t focus.
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High Blood Sugar Causes
You may be thinking that hyperglycemia can happen just from eating a super-sugary food, but its not really as simple as that. Sure, eating a lot of sugar or carbs can elevate your blood sugar level, but thats typically when your pancreas kicks into gear and creates insulin to move that glucose into cells throughout the body.
But when someone has diabetes, this finely tuned system gets thrown out of whack. In type 2 diabeteswhich accounts for 90% to 95% of diabetes in adults, according to the CDCthe body either cant make enough insulin or cant utilize insulin well, according to the NIDDK. If someone has prediabetes, their blood glucose will be higher than normal but not quite in the type 2 diabetes range yet, per the NIDDK. And in type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin or makes very little.
In any case, the result is extra sugar hanging around the bloodstream, making you feel like total crap in the short term and putting your health at risk in the long term.
When To Contact A Medical Professional
- Chest pain or pressure
- Shortness of breath
- Red, painful skin that is spreading quickly
These symptoms can quickly get worse and become emergency conditions .
Also call your provider if you have:
- Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs
- Problems with your eyesight
- Sores or infections on your feet
- Symptoms of high blood sugar
- Symptoms of low blood sugar
- Frequent feelings of depression or anxiety
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When Should I Check My Blood Sugar
How often you check your blood sugar depends on the type of diabetes you have and if you take any diabetes medicines.
Typical times to check your blood sugar include:
- When you first wake up, before you eat or drink anything.
- Before a meal.
- Two hours after a meal.
- At bedtime.
If you have type 1 diabetes, have type 2 diabetes and take insulin, or often have low blood sugar, your doctor may want you to check your blood sugar more often, such as before and after youre physically active.
How Can I Check My Blood Sugar
Use a blood sugar meter or a continuous glucose monitor to check your blood sugar. A blood sugar meter measures the amount of sugar in a small sample of blood, usually from your fingertip. A CGM uses a sensor inserted under the skin to measure your blood sugar every few minutes. If you use a CGM, youll still need to test daily with a blood sugar meter to make sure your CGM readings are accurate.
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General Treatment Of Diabetes
People with diabetes benefit greatly from learning about the disorder, understanding how diet and exercise affect their blood glucose levels, and knowing how to avoid complications. A nurse trained in diabetes education can provide information about managing diet, exercising, monitoring blood glucose levels, and taking drugs.
What Is The A1c Test
The A1C test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 2 or 3 months. The test is done at a lab or your doctors office in addition tonot instead ofregular blood sugar testing you do yourself.
A1C testing is part of the ABCs of diabetesimportant steps you can take to prevent or delay health complications down the road:
- A: Get a regular A1C test.
- B: Try to keep your blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg .
- C: Manage your cholesterol levels.
- s: Stop smoking or dont start.
The A1C goal for most adults with diabetes is between 7% and 8%, but your goal may be different depending on your age, other health conditions, medicines youre taking, and other factors. Work with your doctor to establish a personal A1C goal for you.
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Managing Blood Sugar Levels
Many people with diabetes must check their blood sugar levels daily with a glucose meter. This device takes a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and displays the sugar level within a few seconds.
People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin as their doctor recommends, usually several times a day.
Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes may need to change their diet and exercise habits. They may also need to take oral medications or insulin.
A number of strategies can help prevent hyperglycemia.
- check their blood sugar levels as their doctor advises and take the correct amount of insulin, if they have type 1 diabetes
- speak to their healthcare provider or dietitian about which foods to eat or avoid, how much to eat, and how often
- take precautions to avoid infections, for example, through regular hand washing, as illness, such as a cold, can trigger a rise in blood pressure
- plan their food intake and exercise to balance blood sugar levels
- minimize stress, as far as possible, for example, through exercise, getting enough sleep, and stress-reducing activities such as meditation or yoga
Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can happen when a person:
- has certain medical conditions
- does a lot of exercise
- skips meals or eats too little
It can also be a side effect of diabetes medicines. Taking too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels.
Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:
- visit a doctor regularly
Your Kidneys Are Damaged
High blood glucose affects kidney function. The tiny blood vessels in the kidneys are needed to filter wastes from the bloodstream. If high blood sugar is present, the kidneys filtration system must work harder to remove glucose from the blood. Over time, high blood sugar can scar the kidneys filters.
Higher than normal protein in the urine is often the first sign of diabetic complications. Its important to control high blood sugars and hypertension to preserve kidney function.
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Your Sex Life Can Be Affected
Diabetics sometimes notice erectile dysfunction or loss of libido. Female and male diabetics may fail to reach orgasm. Vaginal dryness or pain during intercourse may be symptoms of high blood sugar.
Because high blood sugar damages the blood vessels and nerves needed to facilitate sex, its important to control blood sugar.