Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart
Every substance present in our body has an optimum level. Above or below that specific range, that particular substance is harmful to our health. And so is sugar. There is a certain range of blood sugar which is considered as standard for almost all age. However, there might be some changes in the level considering different factors like age and other co-morbidities. Lets look at the chart:
|2 hours after the meal||< 140 mg/dl|
Sometimes, random blood is also taken. In this case, the glucose level of 200 mg/dl is considered a diabetic condition.
Going through the chart you will notice certain terms regarding blood sugar which you need to understand in order to evaluate your own glucose level. So, I will just give a small brief regarding those:
- Fasting blood glucose: Here, blood sugar is tested after abstaining from food and drink for at least 8 hours.
- Postprandial blood sugar:In this case, blood sugar is tested 2 hours after a meal to access if its at the optimum level after having a meal or not.
- Random blood glucose: Blood is tested at any time of the day.
- HbA1c: It refers to a blood test which is done to evaluate the average level of blood glucose over the past 3 months. HbA1c is also known as glycosylated haemoglobin or A1C. Moreover, fasting is not required before carrying out the test.
Things To Do If You Have Diabetes
Common things that people with diabetes should avoid include eating lots of simple sugars, eating too much food for the activity theyve performed recently, and not following medication or exercise plans.
Some things that can be harmful to people with diabetes are smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol in excess, and eating large portions of unhealthy foods.
The person should maintain a healthy diet and exercise regularly. The doctor may also recommend taking insulin or other medications to manage their blood sugar levels.
How Do I Take Care Of My Blood Glucose Meter
- Set the date and time when you get a new meter.
- Make sure the date and time are right each time you use your meter.
- Use the control solution as needed. This will let you know the meter and test strips are working right. Use it:
- When you get a new meter.
- When you get new test strips.
- When you think that the meter is not giving you the right blood glucose number.
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What Is An Estimated Average Glucose Level
Before we start talking about A1c results, we need to clear up one thing: your eAG.
Your eAG is simply your estimated average glucose level or blood sugar level.
Your eAG is another term rarely used in doctors offices, but its pretty darn important if youre trying to improve your A1c and your overall risk of diabetes complications.
We all know our blood sugar never stays put in one place for very long, so your eAG doesnt imply that your blood sugar is always that number, but instead its the middle of the overall range of your blood sugars fluctuations each day.
Okay, lets get more specific
How To Lower Hba1c And Blood Glucose Levels
Adopt a more vegetarian diet, including beans & nuts
Vegetarian diets are inversely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In a meta analysis comparing nine different experiments, researchers found that vegetarian diets consistently improved fasting blood glucose and HbA1c. Why? They generally emphasize a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, beans, and nuts, and lower levels of saturated and trans fat. Plus, beans often replace meat in these diets by acting as a protein source. Thanks to their high fiber content and low glycemic index , beans stabilize blood glucose and insulin levels. So individuals with type 2 diabetes may notice significantly lower A1c levels if they increase their bean intake to at least one cup per day. Similar to beans, nuts are low glycemic and help regulate blood sugar levels. In a recent experiment, people who replaced some of their food with a serving of nuts saw improved glycemic control and HbA1c levels. On a grander scale, eating nuts has an inverse association with type 2 diabetesthat is, people who include nuts in their daily lives tend to have a lower risk of developing diabetes.
Exercise is a crucial component in managing glucose and insulin levels. It directly improves blood glucose control, increases insulin sensitivity, and helps maintain a healthy weight. Exercise is a very effective tool in preventing the development of type 2 diabetes.
Prep more meals at home
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Determining Your Own A1c And Eag Goals
In an ideal world, sure, we would all eat zero carbohydrates and our A1cs would be a magical 5.0. But managing diabetes is not that simple.
This means that determining that right A1c goal for you, your body, and your life as a person with diabetes is a very personal decision that you and your healthcare team decide on.
For instance, someone with a background of hypoglycemia unawareness may find a target A1c of 6.0 percent to simply be too dangerous, putting them at too much risk for severe hypoglycemia.
Someone who lives by themselves may find that sleeping with blood sugars lower than 120 mg/dL, for example, is simply too scary.
Someone who has in recovery from diabulimia and has spent the past several years with blood sugars above 300 mg/dL will need to lower blood sugar levels very gradually with the help of their healthcare team and support team. This means their A1c is going to be set at a higher target than normal, too.
To learn more about setting A1c targets and lowering your A1c , please read our comprehensive guide to lowering your A1c.
Everyone is in a different place with their diabetes management, and we all have different personal needs, challenges, and goals. And that needs to be okay. Focus on whats right for you and your current life as a person with diabetes.
What Foods Will Lower Hemoglobin A1c
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Why Is My Hba1c Not Coming Down Below 7% With All My Efforts
It is a lot easier to bring the A1c from 10% down to 8%. However, most patients get stuck between 7% and 8%. Their goal is typically to go down to 6.5%. The barrier to achieving this goal is blood sugar spikes after meals. You will not notice this unless you check blood sugars 2 hours after meals. If you want to get it below 7%, you need to make sure that your fasting blood sugars are less than 130, and you are 2 hours after-meal blood sugars are less than 180 at all times.
This goal can be achieved with certain non-insulin or insulin medications. Your endocrinologist or diabetes care specialist should discuss your options with you. Once your fasting blood sugars are less than 130, you need to focus on the blood sugars after meals.
A1c Levels Explanation And A1c Calculator
Your A1C test result can be a good general gauge of your diabetes control, because it provides an average blood glucose level over the past few months.
Unlike daily blood glucose test results, which are reported as mg/dL, A1C is reported as a percentage. This can make it difficult to understand the relationship between the two. For example, if you check blood glucose 100 times in a month, and your average result is 190 mg/dL this would lead to an A1C of approximately 8.2%, which is above the target of 7% or lower recommended by the American Diabetes Association for many adults who are not pregnant. For some people, a tighter goal of 6.5% may be appropriate, and for others, a less stringent goal such as 8% may be better.1 Talk to your doctor about the right goal for you.
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What Is My A1c Goal What Is A Good A1c
Typically if A1c is above 5.7% but less than 6.5% is called prediabetes. If A1c is more than 6.5%, then that is called diabetes. The goal of diabetes control depends on the patient. Some patients goal is less than 6.5%, and for some others, it is less than 8%. Your diabetes specialist/endocrinologist will determine your target. The goal is determined based on multiple clinical factors. Make sure that you discuss your A1c target with your diabetes specialist and endocrinologist, and understand your goals clearly. For example, it may be unreasonable for an 85-year-old patient who has had diabetes for 20 years to ask for an A1c target of less than 6%. It is also absurd to target for 7.5% A1c in a 30-year-old overall healthy individual. So we determine A1c goal by multiple clinical factors such as life expectancy, duration of diabetes, risk of hypoglycemia , presence of advanced diabetes complications such as the history of heart attacks and strokes, chronic kidney disease, neuropathy and retinopathy .
What Does A1c Measure
You may be wondering what makes this test different, especially if you already check your blood sugar multiple times a day. The A1C test goes by a few names, including glycosylated hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, or hemoglobin A1C . All of these names hint at what is being measured the amount of sugar attached to hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells, and its job is to carry oxygen to the lungs and all of the cells in your body. Glucose enters your blood stream and sticks, or glycates, with the hemoglobin. The higher your blood glucose, the more sugar-coated or glycated the hemoglobin becomes.
Since the lifecycle of a red blood cell is about four months, the A1C percentage reflects average blood sugar levels detected on hemoglobin cells of varying ages days, weeks, or months old. If your blood glucose control has generally been steady, your hemoglobin cells will not be highly sugar-coated, or glycated, leading to a lower A1C value.
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Low Blood Sugar Level Causes
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What Happens If Blood Sugar Level Is Too High
If your blood sugar levels are too high then you risk developing diabetes. You can develop cardiovascular disease and nerve damage. With diabetes, the glucose in your blood does not reach your cells and can lead to these and other complications. Adding exercise and eating healthy can help to control your diabetes and prevent secondary diseases.
You may develop diseases and disabilities in the future, such as cardiovascular disease and nerve damage, if you have diabetes.
If your blood sugar levels are high then you can develop diabetes and risk developing cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Doing exercise and eating healthy is important to control your diabetes and prevent secondary diseases.
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Symptoms Of High Or Low Blood Sugar
When the person has low blood sugar, they may experience hypoglycemia which can be characterized by-
- Dry mouth
People with type 2 diabetes may experience symptoms of high or low blood sugar. The levels can be checked by pricking a finger to get a drop of blood and putting it on a glucose meter.
Target Levels In People With Diabetes
A doctor will set a persons target A1C level based on many factors. The right target varies from person to person.
For someone with diabetes, the target A1C level may depend on:
- the persons age
- how long they have had diabetes
- their prescribed treatment plan
- any history of adverse effects from the treatment, including episodes of low blood glucose, or hypoglycemia
- any complications from diabetes
- the persons preferences and treatment priorities
In general, a doctor might recommend aiming for A1C levels under 6.5% if a person:
- is young and has a long life expectancy
- has had diabetes for a short period
- is effectively managing their diabetes with lifestyle changes or metformin alone
- is otherwise in good health
A doctor might recommend A1C targets of 7.08.5% if a person:
- is older and has a shorter life expectancy
- has had diabetes for a longer period
- has diabetes that is hard to manage, even with multiple medications
- has a history of severe hypoglycemia or other adverse effects of treatment
- has experienced complications of diabetes
- has other chronic health conditions
A person should work with their doctor to reassess and adjust their A1C targets over time. The condition and treatment goals may change.
To screen for diabetes, a doctor may order an A1C test for someone older than 45. They may also do this for younger people who have other risk factors.
After diagnosing diabetes, a doctor determines how often to test A1C levels.
Symptoms of high blood glucose levels include:
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Hemoglobin A1c Correlations Against Multiple Glucose Values
Ozmen and colleagues36 showed that, while any single glucose value correlates with HbA1c, better correlations are achieved by averaging the glucose values of an individual. Bonora and associates37 found that preprandial glucose levels were slightly better than postprandial glucose levels when correlated with HbA1c however, they also concluded that averaging these values gave the best correlation.
In 1982, Svendson and coworkers38 reported that the average glucose levels derived from approximately 2 to 300 measurements in each of 18 type 1 diabetes patients correlated almost perfectly with glycosylated hemoglobin.
While most similar studies have been performed in type 1 diabetes patients, Makris and colleagues39 have shown that average glucometer glucose values in 140 type 2 diabetes patients also correlates with HbA1c over the preceding 12 weeks. They calculated their averages from a minimum of 72 individual measurements taken in the preceding month. The correlation was similarly exceptionally strong with a regression equation of mean blood glucose = 34.74 × HbA1c – 79.21. The strength of their correlation, however, could also be contributed to by the greater stability of glucose levels in type 2 compared to type 1 diabetes patients.
How To Check Your Own Blood Sugar Level
One way to check ones own sugar level is by pricking a finger with a lancet and placing the blood that comes out onto a test strip, then inserting the strip into a glucose monitor. A meter can tell you what your levels are in about 5 seconds. Another option is by taking an oral glucose tolerance test , which takes longer but may also provide more accurate results. A persons individual level will depend on many factors including how old they are, their ethnicity, their weight and height, and the activity theyve performed recently. Blood sugar levels can be checked by pricking a finger to get a drop of blood and putting it on a glucose meter.
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