Random Blood Glucose: A Robust Risk Factor For Type 2 Diabetes
Go to: Context: Although random blood glucose values are common in clinical practice, the role of elevated RBG values as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is not well described. Objective: This study aimed to examine nondiagnostic, RBG values as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes This was a cross-sectional study of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys participants . The primary outcome was glycemic status using hemoglobin HbA1C as the criterion standard. Analysis: Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between diabetes risk factors and RBG values according to glycemic status. Associations between current U.S. screening strategies and a hypothetical RBG screening strategy with undiagnosed diabetes were examined. Results: In unadjusted analyses, a single RBG 100 mg/dL was more strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes than any single risk factor and remained strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes after adjustment for traditional diabetes risk factors. Using RBG < 100 mg/dL as a reference, the adjusted odds of undiagnosed diabetes increased significantly as RBG increased. RBG 100119 mg/dL RBG 120139 mg/dL RBG 140 mg/dL . As a hypothetical screening strategy, an elevated RBG was more strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes than current United States Preventative Services Task Force guidelines and similar to American Diabetes Association guidelines . Conclusions: A single RBG 100 mContinue reading > >
How Do I Prepare For The Plasma Glucose Level Test And How Are The Results Interpreted
To get an accurate plasma glucose level, you must have fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the test. When you report to the clinic or laboratory, a small sample of blood will be taken from a vein in your arm. According to the practice recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, the results of the blood test are interpreted as follows:
Fasting blood glucose level
- If your blood glucose level is 70 to 99* mg/dL . . .
- What it means: Your glucose level is within the normal range.
*Values between 50 and 70 are often seen in healthy people.
**The condition of “prediabetes” puts you at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and blood lipid disorders.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/21/2018.
What Is High Blood Sugar
If your blood sugar levels are chronically higher than normal, then this is referred to as hyperglycaemia. This is a common issue for those suffering from diabetes. The condition can also affect pregnant women who have gestational diabetes and occasionally those who are severely ill .
Some of the symptoms of hyperglycaemia include:
- Increased thirst
- Issues with concentration and/or thinking
If severe hyperglycaemia is left untreated the condition can lead to organ and tissue damage as the excess glucose present in the body can make it difficult for the organs and cells to function correctly. The disorder can also impair the immune system response in the healing of wounds and cuts.
Recommended Reading: What To Feed Sugar Gliders Daily
What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level For Diabetics
A normal blood sugar level for diabetics is more difficult to define because it can vary greatly from person to person and is measured differently per age.
What’s important is that you work with your doctor to set goals that are achievable for you and that you maintain good blood sugar control as much as possible.
Causes Of Blood Sugar Levels
Whilst the liver and muscles produce some glucose, most comes from the foods we eat. Food and drinks that are high in carbohydrates are most impactful on blood sugar level. What we eat provides us most of the nutrients our body needs and sometimes, does not need. That is not to say that food is a major cause of blood sugar level increasing or decreasing too dramatically.
Typically, if a person has health conditions or poor nutrition, this will lead to a spike or decline in blood sugar level. The causes differ from high to low blood sugar levels and are as follows:
Read Also: Where Can I Buy Sugar Bear Hair Vitamins
Target Blood Glucose Levels After Meals By Age
Your target blood sugar level after eating will depend on how old you are, whether or not you have diabetes and how you are treating it , and whether or not you are pregnant.
Here are some general guidelines for post-meal blood glucose levels:
- Children with diabetes: < 200mg/dl one hour after eating < 180 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Adults without diabetes who are not pregnant: 90-140 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Adults with diabetes who are not pregnant:< 180 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Adults with diabetes taking mealtime insulin: < 180 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Adults with diabetes not taking mealtime insulin:< 140 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Adults with gestational diabetes:< 140 mg/dL one hour after eating < 120 mg/dL two hours after eating
- Pregnant people with preexisting type 1 or type 2 diabetes:< 110-140 mg/dL one hour after eating < 100-120 mg/dL two hours after eating
How Can I Measure My Blood Sugar Levels
You can measure your blood glucose levels with a glucometer. First, you prick your finger with a small device called a lancet to get a drop of blood. Your blood goes on a test strip which you put into the glucometer. Then, the device tells you your blood sugar levels.
You can also use a continuous glucose monitoring device, which uses a sensor that’s placed under your skin to automatically check your levels every few minutes.
Don’t Miss: Why Does My Sugar Level Keep Dropping
A1c Blood Sugar Tests
The A1C test measures the percentage of glucose bound hemoglobin in a persons blood.
According to The National Institutes of Health , this gives a general picture of a persons blood glucose levels over the past 23 months .
Abnormal A1C test results do not necessarily mean a person has diabetes. A doctor will confirm these findings with another blood glucose test.
The doctor may recommend running more tests, such as blood work, to rule out other conditions that can affect blood sugar levels.
How Do Carbs Affect Blood Sugar
Carbs in food make your blood sugar levels go higher after you eat them than when you eat proteins or fats. You can still eat carbs if you have diabetes. The amount you can have and stay in your target blood sugar range depends on your age, weight, activity level, and other factors. Counting carbs in foods and drinks is an important tool for managing blood sugar levels. Make sure to talk to your health care team about the best carb goals for you.
Recommended Reading: What Is The Best Blood Sugar Level To Have
Remedies For High Sugar Level
If the blood sugar level is between 180 to250 mg/dL, seek medical advice and take medicines. Cut off a fast-acting carb diet. Dont take processed food and sugary items.
If the blood sugar level is> 250 mg/dL, you need immediate medical attention. If left untreated, it can lead to coma and high ketones in the blood. So test for ketones and get insulin therapy as soon as possible.
If you experience high sugar levels on regular basis, you are advised to do the following:
Many diabetic patients are aware of the changes they need to make in their diet or daily routine but are not able to follow them due to various reasons. Lack of motivation and proper knowledge is the most common reasons. A constant push from a diabetes reversal coach along with the guidance of a Diabetologist can help regulate blood sugar levels.
Also Read:HbA1c Levels
What Is The Range Of Blood Sugar At Random
It should be below 200 mg/dl. But to be absolutely certain, you need to get two tests done – fasting blood sugar and post prandial. Fasting blood sugar test is done on blood that has been drawn first thing in the morning after waking up and before having breakfast. It should be below 100 mg/dl, and ideally around 85 mg/dl. Check this excellent article for what the signs, risks and causes of prediabetes are. Your post prandial should be below 140 mg/dl. Anything above this and you cold be considered either prediabetic , or diabetic . Also, see this article for how to test for prediabetes and what the results mean.Continue reading > >
Recommended Reading: Can Pain Raise Blood Sugar
What Is My Icr
Everyones insulin-to-carb ratio is different. Some people will even have different ICR ratios for breakfast than for other meals. If you do not know your ICR, ask your healthcare provider or dietitian.
How many carbs you should eat will depend on many factors. If you aren’t sure, reach out to your provider or dietitian for advice.
What Is The Normal Blood Sugar Level For Teens
Teenagers are recommended to have a blood sugar range between 70-150 mg/dL. It’s not easy for a teenager to maintain a tight range, therefore it’s important to aim for these numbers to give them a bit more flexibility.
- Fasting: 70-150 mg/dL
- Preprandial : 90-130 mg/dL
- Postprandial : Less than 140 mg/dL
- Bedtime: 90-150 mg/dL
Recommended Reading: Does Bilberry Lower Blood Sugar
What To Read Next
Take your diabetes medication: All the medication tips you need to stop diarrhea and make injecting easier.
Meal plans: Whether youre looking for a budget meal plan, low carb meal plan, vegetarian or easy cooking we have them all here, for free!
Managing Type 2 diabetes: All you need to know to manage your condition, with terrific food and exercise tips.
Normal Blood Sugar Levels In People Above The Age Of 20
In young adults and adults above 20 who do not have diabetes, the regular blood sugar levels should be as follows:
- In healthy young adults who do not have diabetes, the fasting blood glucose levels should typically be between 70 and 90 mg/dL.
- As per research, a fasting blood glucose level that is above 90 mg/dL can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in young adults.
- In healthy adults who do not have diabetes, the blood glucose levels should be lower than or 140 mg/dL.
Read Also: What Is Low Sugar Number
Why Do Blood Sugars Matter In Diabetes
A key part of managing diabetes involves checking blood sugars, or glucose levels.
For either T1D or T2D, ensuring glucose levels stay as level as possible is the goal. Sometimes insulin or diabetes medications are used based on the type of diabetes and personal needs. Many factors affect glucose levels, including food, exercise, insulin, medications, stress, etc.
Glucose level targets may vary for everyone based on their unique needs.
What Happens If My Blood Glucose Level Becomes Too Low
Sometimes blood glucose levels drop below where they should be, which is called hypoglycemia. For most people with diabetes, the blood glucose level is too low when it is below 70 mg/dL.
Hypoglycemia can be life threatening and needs to be treated right away. Learn more about how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia.
You May Like: What Should Blood Sugar Be When Waking Up
Blood Sugar Levels In The Morning
The best time to check blood sugar levels in the morning is right when you wake up and before you eat anything. This gives you a glimpse of what may be happening overnight, and it gives you a baseline for the day.
These are goal levels, according to Joslin.
- Under 70 mg/dl if you do not have diabetes.
- 70 to 130 mg/dl if you have diabetes.
The dawn effect can often lead to a high morning measurement in diabetes. This is your body’s tendency to get ready for the day by raising blood sugar by increasing levels of counter-regulatory hormones â the ones that counteract insulin. With diabetes, you do not have the capacity to counterbalance this rise in blood sugar, so levels can be dangerously high.
Ways to lower your morning blood sugar value include:
- Eating dinner earlier.
- Checking your medications â making sure you are taking them properly and asking your doctor if they are correct.
- Going for a walk after dinner.
- Including protein with your dinner.
Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
If your test results show you have prediabetes, ask your doctor or nurse if there is a lifestyle change program offered through the CDC-led National Diabetes Prevention Program in your community. You can also search for an online or in-person program. Having prediabetes puts you at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes, but participating in the program can lower your risk by as much as 58% .
Don’t Miss: How To Lower Sugar Levels Fast
What Is The Normal Blood Sugar Level For Different Ages
As mentioned earlier, age is one of the factors that affect blood sugar levels. As we grow, the ability of our bodies to produce insulin decreases. This may lead to higher or lower glucose in our blood.
Some children are diagnosed with health conditions like diabetes. One of the reasons can be the inability of their body to produce insulin. Pregnant women also experience a change in their blood sugar levels due to obvious reasons.
The normal blood sugar levels of each age category are separate. We have discussed the same in this section. These numbers will help you interpret your blood sugar level whenever you check it.
What Is The Normal Level Of Sugar In The Blood
According to CDC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the following blood sugar level is the normal range that healthcare teams recommend for individuals who do not have diabetes.
|140 mg/dL or lesser||Not Applicable|
While these are the recommended blood sugar levels for those who do not have diabetes, your healthcare provider will be able to give you the best target range for your blood sugar levels, based on other factors such as your age, overall health, any medications you are on and so on.
Recommended Reading: Is Cranberry Juice Good For High Blood Sugar
When Things Go Awry
When we eat food, the pancreas goes to work, releasing enzymes that help to break down food and hormones that help the body handle the influx of glucose. One of these hormones is insulin, and it plays a key role in managing glucose levels in the blood.
And here is where things can go wrong. If the pancreas doesnt make enough insulin or stops making it altogether, in the case of type 1 diabetes glucose levels in the blood can rise too high. Another scenario is that the pancreas makes enough insulin but the cells have trouble using it properly, causing blood glucose levels to rise. This is called insulin resistance and is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes.
In the short term, high blood glucose levels can make you feel downright bad. Thirst, frequent trips to the bathroom, fatigue, and weight loss are all symptoms of high blood glucose . If not treated, more serious issues can occur, such as diabetic ketoacidosis . Chronic high blood glucose levels can lead to complications such as heart, kidney and eye disease, as well as nerve damage. So, its all about the blood glucose.
Blood Sugar Levels During Pregnancy
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that occurs during pregnancy if you were not diabetic before getting pregnant. Healthy, normal blood sugar during pregnancy can help lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes later. It can also lower the risk of your baby being born prematurely, at a high birth weight, and having respiratory problems.
Blood sugar and insulin levels during the first trimester of pregnancy tend to be lower than usual, but they rise during the late second and early third trimesters. You can be diagnosed with an oral sugar tolerance test .
These are the steps for the 2-step strategy.
- Drink a solution with 50 grams of sugar â about the amount in 1 16-oz. bottle of a soft drink.
- Get your blood drawn after 1 hour. IF the value is high, retestâÃÂ¶
- Fast overnight.
- Drink a solution with 100 grams of sugar â about the amount in 12 peanut butter cups.
- Get your blood drawn immediately and after 1, 2, and 3 hours.
Or, your doctor might use the 1-step strategy with a 2-hour OGTT.
- Fast overnight.
- Drink a solution with 75 grams of sugar .
- Get your blood drawn immediately and after 1 and 2 hours.
These are some values to know related to gestational diabetes and healthy, normal blood sugar in pregnancy.
Read Also: When’s The Best Time To Check Blood Sugar
Fasting Blood Sugar Level Test Preparation
What should you do if your doctor orders a fasting blood sugar test? The preparation is the same as when you take a fasting test for cholesterol. First, be sure to find out if you need to schedule an appointment for your test . Ask your doctor what time is best to take it.
- Schedule your test if necessary.
- Ask your doctor if you need to change any of the medications you take on the morning of the test.
- If you normally drink coffee or have caffeine, ask your doctor if that is okay. It may not be, since it affects blood sugar levels.
- Fast for at least 8 hours before your test. Usually, an overnight fast is most convenient.
- You can drink water.