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What Is Type 2 Diabetes Normal Blood Sugar

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Who Can Use A Cgm

What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level for Diabetes Type 2 | Mastering Diabetes

Your doctor may recommend CGM if you have:

The device can be used by adults and children ages 2 and older. The FDA recently approved smartphone apps to pair with the CGM. Information on blood glucose is shared immediately. Itâs expected to be a great help to parents and caregivers who canât always be in the same place with the person who has diabetes.

What Are The First Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

Many people with type 2 diabetes do not experience any symptoms at first and it may go undiagnosed for years. If they do have symptoms, these may include:

  • being very thirsty
  • having cuts that heal slowly

Over time, diabetes can lead to complications, which can then cause other symptoms.

Blood glucose testing is important for detecting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes before complications arise.

What Causes Blood Sugar To Be High

Many things can cause high blood sugar , including being sick, being stressed, eating more than planned, and not giving yourself enough insulin. Over time, high blood sugar can lead to long-term, serious health problems. Symptoms of high blood sugar include:

  • Feeling very tired.
  • Having blurry vision.
  • Needing to urinate more often.

If you get sick, your blood sugar can be hard to manage. You may not be able to eat or drink as much as usual, which can affect blood sugar levels. If youre ill and your blood sugar is 240 mg/dL or above, use an over-the-counter ketone test kit to check your urine for ketones and call your doctor if your ketones are high. High ketones can be an early sign of diabetic ketoacidosis, which is a medical emergency and needs to be treated immediately.

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What Are Normal Blood Sugar Levels In Healthy Individuals

Blood sugar levels can either be normal, high, or low, depending on how much glucose someone has in their bloodstream. Glucose is a simple sugar thats present in the bloodstream at all times. Blood glucose levels can be measured at any time, for example, when someone fasts , before they eat, or after theyve eaten. A normal blood glucose level for adults, without diabetes, who havent eaten for at least eight hours is less than 100 mg/dL. A normal blood glucose level for adults, without diabetes, two hours after eating, is 90 to 110 mg/dL.

Many factors affect blood sugar levels throughout the day:

  • Type of food consumed, how much, and when
  • Physical activity
  • Menstrual periods

An ideal blood sugar level for anyone without diabetes or prediabetes, regardless of age, in the morning should be less than 100 mg/dL. Remember, blood sugar levels can fluctuate throughout the day as a result of the factors previously mentioned.

Should I Use A Continuous Glucose Monitor

What Blood Sugar Level Is Diabetic

While a fingerstick blood sugar test gives you a static glimpse of your glucose level at that precise moment in time, a CGM is a more constant flow of information that provides a more complete picture and pattern of how youre doing.

This device monitors glucose levels under the skin, providing real-time results every 1 to 5 minutes. You insert a CGM on your body and wear it for 7 to 14 days, with the diabetes data being streamed to a separate handheld receiver or your smartphone app.

Importantly, you can see in real-time the effects of food and exercise on your glucose levels, and catch cases of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia as they happen, avoiding the potentially dangerous consequences. Its also a potentially life-saving tool for people with diabetes who experience hypoglycemia unawareness, alerting them to impending low blood sugars when their own bodies fail to recognize the warning signs.

Research has shown, time and time again, the benefits of CGM in helping people improve their diabetes outcomes. This

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High Blood Glucose Levels

Consistently high blood sugar levels are part of a condition called hyperglycemia.

People with poorly controlled diabetes, Cushings syndrome, and some other illnesses often experience hyperglycemia. People taking oral steroids may also experience hyperglycemia while taking this medication.

Hyperglycemia normally develops when there is not enough insulin in the body, or when the cells become less sensitive to insulin.

Without insulin, glucose cannot enter cells, and it builds up in the bloodstream.

Common symptoms of hyperglycemia can include:

If the kidneys and liver do not work correctly, breaking down and excreting medication from the body becomes harder.

Excessive insulin production or supplementation can lead to hypoglycemia. Some tumors can cause low blood sugar, as they produce chemicals similar to insulin. A tumor may also consume so much glucose that it does not leave enough for the rest of the body.

People who undergo gastric bypass surgery might also experience hypoglycemia, as they will be able to take in less food than they were able to before surgery.

Nesidioblastosis, a rare condition involving the enlargement of beta cells, often results in an overproduction of insulin. Beta cells produce insulin in the pancreas.

What Is The A1c Test

The A1C test is a simple blood test that measures your average blood sugar levels over the past 2 or 3 months. The test is done at a lab or your doctors office in addition tonot instead ofregular blood sugar testing you do yourself.

A1C testing is part of the ABCs of diabetesimportant steps you can take to prevent or delay health complications down the road:

The A1C goal for most adults with diabetes is between 7% and 8%, but your goal may be different depending on your age, other health conditions, medicines youre taking, and other factors. Work with your doctor to establish a personal A1C goal for you.

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Your Diabetes Continuing Care

You can expect to be scheduled for checkups every three to six months, depending on your overall health, the types of medications you take and your personal needs.

You should use self-blood glucose monitoring. Well also instruct you on when to report poor control or complications to your health care providers.

When you come in for follow-up visits, your health care provider will review the medications youre taking and the results of self-blood glucose monitoring. Well then evaluate occurrences of unusually high or low blood glucose levels, any changes youve made in medications, and diabetes complications or adherence problems you may have experienced. Additionally, well talk with you about psychological and social factors and other medical illnesses influencing your health.

Follow-up physical exams will include weight, height , blood pressure and foot checks. Lab tests that produced abnormal findings in previous visits will be repeated. Well run tests for glycosylated hemoglobin and, if appropriate, blood glucose. Lipid studies are checked annually in adults and every two years in children. A urine test is performed annually. If urine contains protein, well do further tests to assess kidney function.

Healthy Normal Sugar Levels In Diabetic Adults

What Is Normal Diabetic Blood Sugar Levels
  • In diabetic patients above 20 years of age, blood sugar level remains between 100 to 180 mg/dL throughout the day.
  • The fasting glucose range should be between 70 to 100 mg/dL to avoid diabetic complications.
  • At bedtime blood, sugar levels should be between 100 to140 mg/dL to avoid any diabetic complications.
  • The blood glucose levels chart for women shows the normal blood sugar level readings should be between 100 to 140 mg/dL at bedtime. It should be > 70 and < 100mg/dL after fasting.
  • In diabetic pregnant women, the blood sugar readings should be a little tighter, between 70 to 89 mg/dL after fasting. They should regularly monitor their glucose levels to avoid delivery-related complications.
  • Summary

    Healthy diabetic adults should maintain a normal sugar level of 70 to 130 mg/dL before meals and less than 180 mg/dL after 2 hours of meals. Pregnant women should maintain a blood glucose level of 95-140 mg/dL to avoid complications. This can be done with the right habits in place that help you maintain your sugar level without getting stressed about it.

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    What Factors Affect Blood Sugar

    You can guess that carbohydrate intake and insulin production are at least partly responsible for your blood sugar levels. But the list is much longer — almost every lifestyle choice you make can affect your blood sugar. Here’s just a partial list.

    • Exercise can affect insulin sensitivity, leading to lower blood sugar for up to 48 hours.
    • Alcohol intake increases insulin production, causing low blood sugar.
    • Stress hormones like cortisol can raise blood sugar, because your body wants access to energy in order to escape what it perceives as a dangerous situation.
    • Medications, especially statins and diuretics, can raise blood sugar. Statins are used to treat cholesterol, and diuretics for high blood pressure.
    • Diet is a major player in blood sugar. Eating too many simple carbs at once can cause levels to skyrocket, while protein intake leads to a slower increase in blood sugar.
    • Dehydration raises blood sugar, because with less water in your body the glucose concentration will be higher.

    Other surprising factors can affect your blood sugar, like a sunburn or gum disease, so if you’re dealing with a blood sugar issue and can’t figure out what’s causing your spikes and dips, talk to a healthcare professional.

    Low Blood Sugar Levels Symptoms

    Low blood sugar levels or also known as hypoglycemia can happen to anyone but is more common in people with diabetes. Low blood sugar levels can occur if you miss a meal, exercise too hard, or take too much insulin.

    Signs and symptoms that your blood sugar might be on the low side include:

    • Anxiety or feeling of nervousness

    If you have any of these symptoms, it’s important to check your blood sugar levels right away. You can use a home glucose meter to test your blood sugar levels. The ADA recommends that people with diabetes keep a fast-acting source of sugar like glucose tablets with them at all times in case they experience low blood sugar levels.

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    Can I Check My Own Blood Sugar

    You can do blood sugar level check by doing a finger-prick test, by using a blood sugar monitor called a flash glucose monitor or with a continuous glucose monitor . You can do this several times a day helping you keep an eye on your levels as you go about your life and help you work out what to eat and how much medication to take. Find out your ideal target range.

    Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their levels like this. Youll need to if you take certain diabetes medication. Always talk to your healthcare team if youre not sure whether thats you theyll give you advice on whether to check them yourself and how often.

    And theres also something called an HbA1c, which is a blood test to measure your average blood sugar level over the last three months. Everyone with diabetes is entitled to this check.

    High blood sugar levels increase your risk of developing serious complications. However you manage your diabetes, stay in the know about your blood sugar levels

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    Tips To Manage Blood Glucose Levels

    Understanding and Managing Type II Diabetes

    There are several steps a person can often take to help control blood sugar.

    Eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables, maintaining a moderate weight, and getting at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-intense exercise each week

    Other tips for controlling blood sugar can include:

    • eating at regular times and not skipping meals
    • drinking more water
    • balancing portions at meals so that a typical plate will be one-fourth meat, one-fourth starchy foods, and one-half non-starchy vegetables

    Any person who experiences symptoms of low or high blood sugar should see a doctor, whether or not they have a diagnosis of diabetes.

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    Getting The Right Medicine For You

    There are many types of Type 2 diabetes medicines that help lower the amount of glucose in your blood.

    If eating healthy foods, being active and losing weight are not enough to help lower your blood glucose, you may need to start diabetes medicine.

    It can take time to find a medicine and dose thats right for you. Your GP or nurse will support you with this. Over time you may need a combination of medicines to help keep blood glucose at a healthy level.

    Insulin

    For some people tablets may not be enough to treat their Type 2 diabetes and the best alternative may be to add insulin treatment. Nowadays insulin can be given easily using a tiny needle inside a pen-like gadget.

    Your GP and nurse will support you if you need to use insulin treatment.

    Eating healthily, being active and being a healthy weight are still important parts of treating your diabetes, even if you are taking medicine to help reduce your blood glucose.

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    Measure Your Waist Circumference

    The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher if fat is stored around the abdomen . BMI assessments do not take into account where fat is stored. Men with a waist circumference of 102 cm or more and women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more are at higher risk. Measure after breathing out . This is not the same as the waist size on your pants.

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    High Blood Sugar Symptoms

    Hyperglycemia is the medical term for high blood sugar. Hyperglycemia happens when the body doesnt have enough insulin or when it cant use insulin correctly. Many things can cause high blood glucose levels like Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, stress, illness, or the dawn phenomenon. If you have hyperglycemia or suspect you may have it, talking with a healthcare provider is always a good idea. A doctor can help you determine whats causing your high blood sugar levels and help you lower it to a healthy range.

    Here are some of the most common symptoms that may indicate hyperglycemia:

    • Fruity-smelling breath

    Your healthcare provider will give you a treatment plan that indicates when you should seek immediate medical attention.

    When patients experience any of these accompanied by elevated blood sugar levels, diabetic patients are advised to go directly to the ER to avoid diabetes-induced coma, says Vikram Tarugu, MD, a gastroenterologist and the CEO of Detox of South Florida. Patients who have elevated blood sugar may also present with frothy, ketone-like smelling breath.

    Here are some lifestyle changes and medical treatments that can help treat hyperglycemia:

    Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes: Whats The Difference

    Type 2 Diabetes and Daily Blood Sugar Monitoring

    Type 2 diabetes is not the same as Type 1 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesnt make any insulin. In Type 2, your pancreas doesnt make enough insulin, and the insulin it is making doesnt always work as it should. Both types are forms of diabetes mellitus, meaning they lead to hyperglycemia .

    Type 2 diabetes usually affects older adults, though its becoming more common in children. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but people of any age can get it.

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    What Hba1c Do I Aim For

    The goal for most people with diabetes will be in the 6.5-7 percent range however this may need to be higher for some people including children and the elderly. Your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator can help you decide on a target that is both appropriate and realistic for your individual circumstances.

    What Are The Warning Signs Of Type 2 Diabetes

    The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are similar to those of type 1 diabetes. But the onset of type 2 diabetes is usually slower and the symptoms are not as noticeable as those for type 1 diabetes. For these reasons, many people mistakenly overlook the warning signs. They also might think that the symptoms are the signs of other conditions, like aging, overworking or hot weather.

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    What Blood Sugar Goals Should I Be Aiming For

    The American Diabetes Association recommends that most people with diabetes aim for the following blood sugar goals:

    • Preprandial : 80-130 mg/dL
    • Postprandial : Less than 180 mg/dL

    Your doctor will likely set different goals for you based on many factors including your age, how long you’ve had diabetes, other health problems you have.

    Normal And Diabetic Blood Sugar Ranges

    Diabetes Tests

    For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows:

    • Between 4.0 to 5.4 mmol/L when fasting
    • Up to 7.8 mmol/L 2 hours after eating

    For people with diabetes, blood sugar level targets are as follows:

    • Before meals : 4 to 7 mmol/L for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes
    • After meals : under 9 mmol/L for people with type 1 diabetes and under 8.5mmol/L for people with type 2 diabetes

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    What If I Have Trouble Getting To My Blood Sugar Goals

    There may be times when you have trouble reaching your blood sugar goals. This does not mean that you have failed. It means that you and your health care team should see if changes are needed. Call your health care team if your blood sugar is often too high or too low. Taking action will help you be healthy today and in the future.

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