Blood Sugar Levels Chart
Blood sugar levels rise and drop during the day. This is normal. However, dramatic fluctuations in your blood glucose levels may indicate problems.
Dramatic changes of blood sugar levels have significant physical symptoms and will increase your risk of diabetes-related complications.
and keep track of your results write down all of your measured values.
Blood sugar levels chart for non-diabetics
|Glucose mg/dL or mmol/L
- visual disturbances
Symptoms may vary different people might experience different symptoms. In some cases symptoms can even remain unrecognized .
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Make A Note Of Your Readings
It may sound obvious, but you must record your readings. Note them down in a diary, a notebook or in your phone calendar. Some meters have software that lets you do this. You could try a diabetes app too.
You and your healthcare team can then look back over your results to see if you need to adjust your treatment.
How To Lower Your A1c
Now that you have a thorough understanding of A1c and time-in-range, as well as why looking at your A1c in isolation isnt optimal, the obvious question is:
How do you lower your A1c while improving or sustaining your time-in-range?
I will cover the four most important things you can do below but its always recommended that you start by having a conversation with your medical team before making changes to your diabetes management.
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What Is A Ketogenic Diet
Once upon a time, keto was the original diabetes diet prescribed to type 1 diabetes patients before the advent of insulin, as this would prolong their lives as it has less of an impact on blood sugar levels.
The ketogenic diet is a low-carb diet where you get only ~5% of your daily caloric intake from carbohydrates. By restricting your carbohydrate intake so severely, you force your body to get most of its energy from fat. A byproduct of this fat burning is the production of natural ketones in the body, hence the name of the diet.
Burning ketones supplies the body with an alternative form of energy rather than quickly accessible energy from carbs and is what makes the ketogenic diet work. . More about that later in this guide).
The two main reasons why a person with diabetes would follow a keto diet are:
In the rest of this guide, I will review the pros and cons of a keto diet and try to answer the obvious questions: Is a keto diet good for people with diabetes?
High Blood Sugar: Hidden Dangers
In the short term, high blood sugar levels can zap your energy, cause excessive thirst and urination, and blur your vision. High blood sugar levels can also lead to dehydration, dry and itchy skin, and infections. Minimizing the time spent above your target blood sugar range can help you feel your best and will help prevent complications and injury to your body.
Over time, high blood sugar affects many parts of the body. Chronic high blood sugar can start to cause noticeable changes, including:
- Memory problems
- Vision problems like blurriness, diabetic retinopathy, and blindness
- Gum disease that leads to tooth loss, which can make eating healthy foods difficult due to problems chewing
- Heart attack and stroke due to increased plaque build-up in the vessels and other vascular issues
- Kidney disease, which can lead to the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant
- Nerve damage that can cause decreased sensation in the feet and legs which increases the risk for wounds to turn into serious infections and even amputation
Nerve damage from high blood sugar can also cause a variety of symptoms including:
- Pain and tingling in the feet and hands
- Difficulty emptying your bladder
- Problems during the digestion process after eating, which can cause food to sit in the stomach too long and lead to nausea, vomiting, and erratic blood sugar levels
Checking your blood sugar frequently and taking immediate action when it is above range can reduce your risk of complications.
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Diagnosing Prediabetes Type 2 And Type 1 Diabetes
Depending on which country or medical organization you ask, the qualifying numbers for normal versus prediabetes versus diagnosed type 1 or type 2 diabetes can vary slightly. The following blood sugar and A1c the general results are used to diagnosed prediabetes and diabetes according to sources including the American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK:
- HbA1c: 5.7 to 6.4 percent
- Fasting: 100 to 125 mg/dL
- 2 hours after a meal: 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL
Type 1 or 2 diabetes
- HbA1c: 6.5 percent or higher
- Fasting: 126 mg/dL or higher
- 2 hours after a meal: 200 mg/dL or higher
Please note: Type 1 diabetes tends to develop very quickly which means that by the time symptoms are felt, blood sugar levels are generally well above 200 mg/dL all the time. For many, symptoms come on so quickly they are dismissed as the lingering flu or another seemingly ordinary virus.
By the time blood sugar levels are tested, many newly diagnosed type 1 patients will see levels above 400 mg/dL or higher. If you do suspect that you or a loved-one has type 1 diabetes, visit your primary care or urgent care immediately and ask for a urine test to measure ketones in addition to testing blood sugar levels and A1c.
Read more about ketones at diagnosis in Diabetes StrongsDiabetic Ketoacidosis Guide.
What Is Low Blood Glucose
Low blood glucose, also called low blood sugar or hypoglycemia, occurs when the level of glucose in your blood drops below what is healthy for you. For many people with diabetes, this means a blood glucose reading lower than 70 milligrams per deciliter .1 Your number might be different, so check with your doctor or health care team to find out what blood glucose level is low for you.
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What The Science Says
Several comprehensive studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated that after a few months or even a year of a low carb diet versus a moderate/high carb diet, there are no significant differences in the amount of weight lost . I will say, however, most of these diets are NOT keto and are simply lower carb . Also, long-term effects are not often studied due to budgetary constraints, so interpret results as you wish.
Verdict: A keto diet is not inherently better for weight loss than other diets but can be very effective if it:
- Helps you manage your blood sugar better than other diets
- Is easier for you to follow than other diets
- Works for your general lifestyle
As with most other diets, the main criteria for success is whether or not you can follow the diet for the long term. If you like the keto lifestyle, the diet works great. If you hate it, it probably wont work for you.
Normal Blood Sugar 1 2 Hours After Eating
Insulin, hormone produced in the pancreas, is responsible to regulate your normal blood glucose. After eating , pancreas releases more insulin to help glucose to enter the bodys cells. As a result, the level of glucose in the blood backs to normal.
The high insulin in the blood is also a signal when the liver converts excess glucose to become glycogen. When the body is lack of glucose in the blood , glycogen is converted back to glucose and released into bloodstream.
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How Can I Check My Blood Sugar
Use a blood sugar meter or a continuous glucose monitor to check your blood sugar. A blood sugar meter measures the amount of sugar in a small sample of blood, usually from your fingertip. A CGM uses a sensor inserted under the skin to measure your blood sugar every few minutes. If you use a CGM, youll still need to test daily with a blood sugar meter to make sure your CGM readings are accurate.
Do You Think Some Carbs Don’t Count
Your body breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars, also called glucose. It doesn’t matter where these carbs came from. You need to look at total grams of carbs in your food, not just the sugar content.
Pasta, rice, tortillas, they have a lot of glucose, Moreno says. They will increase your sugar levels, sometimes even more than candy.
Natural sugars also count. Its true that you should swap cookies for fruits. But that doesnt mean you can have loads of them, Saeed says. Moderation is key.
Gail Nunlee-Bland, MD, chief of endocrinology at Howard University Hospital, recommends eating no more than two servings of fruit a day. And try to add more non-starchy vegetables to your meals. The green leafy ones are better, she says.
Theres a handy measurement to give you a better idea of which foods, including fruits and veggies, are best for your diabetes. Its called the glycemic index . The ratings tell you how likely a food is to boost your blood sugar. For example, berries are lower on the GI scale — and lower in natural sugars — than bananas, raisins, or grapes, Saeed says.
Labels on most packaged foods in the U.S. don’t list glycemic index ratings. But you can easily find GI calculators online.
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Blood Sugar: When Its Too Low Or Too High
The hormone insulin takes sugar from food and uses it for energy. With type 2 diabetes, you dont have enough insulin or your body isnt effective at using insulin, and excess sugar continues to circulate in your bloodstream.
A target blood sugar range for most people with type 2 diabetes is 80 to 130 milligrams per deciliter before a meal and less than 180 mg/dl one to two hours after starting a meal, according to the American Diabetes Association.
A reading of 160 mg/dl or higher is typically considered high blood sugar . Over time, blood sugar in the range of 160 to 250 mg/dl can affect every organ in your body, Dr. Reddy says. It’s associated with heart disease, eye disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, stroke, and vascular disease. If blood sugar goes as high as 500 mg/dl, you may experience symptoms such as thirst, the urge to urinate more often, weight loss, low energy, and drowsiness, he says.
Low blood sugar occurs when levels fall to less than 70 mg/dl. This is a risk when you take insulin or other diabetes medications, have gone too long without a meal, have been active, or have been drinking alcohol.
If your blood sugar goes too low, youll probably feel shaky and sweaty and you may develop tremors, Reddy says. Other symptoms may include a racing heart, headache, weakness, confusion, hunger, irritability, lack of coordination, and pale skin. If your blood sugar continues to drop to 30 mg/dl and below, you could slip into a diabetic coma.
How To Lower Blood Sugar Level
A patient with diabetes is at a 5 times greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease than patient without diabetes. One third of all cardiovascular diseases also affect people with diabetes.
Three quarters of diabetics die from cardiovascular disease. Women with diabetes have a 4 times greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease. People suffering from diabetes usually have high cholesterol levels as well.
Disturbances in the metabolism of blood sugar levels are mainly the consequence of heredity , age , poor diet, excessive body weight and physical inactivity. Disturbances in the metabolism of blood sugar were present in 20% of adult Europeans during 2002-2005 a study showed.
RECOMMENDATIONS to decrease elevated blood sugar:Blood sugar level is determined in the fasting state. In a healthy person, a normal blood glucose level is less than 108 mg/dL or 6 mmol/L on an empty stomach.
Possible values are
What can you do to lower the chance of developing diabetes:
- lose weight be fit,
- sleep more, be rested.
- have a healthy diet with as many vegetables and fruits, a lot of fiber, consume less calories, less fat, less alcoholic beverages and no simple sugars,
- workout at least 30 minutes per day.
Useful resource: blood sugar levels chart:
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Is A Keto Diet Safe For People With Diabetes
While there hasnt been a lot of research done on the long-term effect of following a keto diet, its generally considered safe for most people with diabetes.
The main risks when following a keto diet are related to mental health. ANY restrictive diet can potentially lead to an unhealthy relationship with food, and, in some cases, eating disorders.
If you find yourself constantly thinking about food, avoiding social situations where food is involved, or struggle with a negative body image, please seek professional help.
NOTE: Its important to stress that this risk isnt related specifically to a keto diet but dieting in general!
How Difficult Is A Keto Diet To Follow
This is the most important, but also most subjective, question about any diet. If you dont feel physically and mentally well on a diet, it wont lead to long-term results, because you wont adhere to it.
The keto diet is probably one of the post polarizing diets when it comes to peoples opinion on how easy it is to follow. Some people love it almost from day one while others experience major food cravings and even physical discomfort.
This is what my experience with a keto diet was like. Yours may be different:
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The Importance Of Maintaining Good Blood Sugar Levels
You must look after the blood glucose levels to ensure that it is in control. Not maintaining good blood sugar levels may prove risky for your health and might result in an increased risk of diabetes complications. Moreover, alarmingly high blood sugar levels may also increase the risk of health issues such as Nerve damage, Kidney problems, Retinal disease, and cardiovascular diseases.
Eating healthy and exercising daily can help you stay fit and maintain good blood sugar levels. Additionally, you must ask your doctor or diabetes educator to provide you with a proper plan for your treatment.
Individuals with diabetes must be careful about the food they eat otherwise, their health might take a toll. Some foods can enhance the health of diabetic patients, whereas some might deteriorate it and make them suffer. So, lets find out foods that diabetic patients should eat or avoid to stay healthy.
What Should My Blood Sugar Level Be 4 Hours After Eating
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Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges
|BLOOD SUGAR CHART
|Below 7.8 mmol/l Below 140 mg/dl
|7.8 to 11.0 mmol/l 140 to 199 mg/dl
What is a normal blood sugar level 1 hour after eating?
Normal blood sugar levels are less than 100 mg/dL after not eating for at least eight hours. And theyâre less than 140 mg/dL two hours after eating.
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Keto Diet And Exercise
Starting on a ketogenic diet can influence your exercise performance in multiple ways, both positive and negative. During the first 1-2 weeks , you will most likely see a decrease in energy and athletic performance across the board while your body adjusts to the new diet. This is perfectly normal and should NOT be a cause for concern or make you abandon the diet.
When your body has adapted to the ketogenic diet, you will most likely experience that cardio returns to its previous level of difficulty, but strength training may or may not be harder.
How Does A Keto Diet Affect Blood Sugar
The premise of the ketogenic diet and diabetes is easy fewer carbs require less insulin and should result in fewer blood sugar spikes. Fewer blood sugar spikes should lead to improved time in range and better A1c values.
In addition, several studies have shown that the keto diet can improve insulin sensitivity , further reducing the need for insulin and making blood sugar control easier.
IF you can adhere to it, keto can be a very effective way to manage your blood sugars. The swings will truly start to dissipate, trendlines on CGMs will flatten, and your A1c will quite possibly drop. I had the best A1c of my LIFE while doing keto.
On the flip side, hypos can be an issue, especially early onand if you treat them too aggressively, they could knock you out of ketosis. I remember my first 3 weeks on keto, my CGM trend line hugged a blood sugar of around 80. It was glorious, but I had to reduce insulin substantially through trial and error and felt like I was low every five seconds.
When I would overtreat a low, I would sometimes push my carbohydrate amount over the keto threshold and end up OUT of ketosisnot that it is the worst thing in the world, but the goal is to remain in ketosis as much as possible.
That keto diets work in real life is exemplified by the fact that the keto diet is perhaps the most popular low-carb diet for people with diabetes and that thousands of people swear by the keto diet for good blood sugar management.
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Packed And Stacked Food
Diabetes patients should be cautious while choosing snacks. Snacks such as crackers, pretzels, and some other packed snacks should be avoided. Most of the snacks are processed food made from flour and dont provide many nutrients. Also, they contain enough carbs that can result in a rapid increase in blood sugar levels.