How To Reduce Blood Sugar
You can take steps to reach your blood sugar goals as soon as you find out that it is high. This is how to reduce blood sugar if you have a single high reading that may be dangerous:
- Ask your doctor what to do if you missed a dose of insulin or another diabetes medication
- Ask your doctor if your medication types and doses are still appropriate for you
- Drink water to dilute the sugar
- Exercise for 15 minutes
- Eat a small protein snack, such as a hard-boiled egg, ½ ounce of peanuts or pistachios or other nuts, ½ cup of beans, or ½ cup of plain yogurt or cottage cheese
If you have chronically high blood sugar in prediabetes or diabetes, you can follow this treatment plan:
- Exercise regularly, assuming your doctor approves it
- Lose weight if you are overweight or obese
- Eat a higher proportion of vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, healthy fats, and fruit
- Limit sugary foods and beverages, fried foods, refined starches, and processed and fatty red meats
- Beware of starchy vegetables such as sweet potatoes, which can spike your blood sugar. Check out our guide of which veggies to avoid!
How Do I Prevent Hyperglycemia
- Exercise to help lower blood sugar. Work with your healthcare provider to make a daily activity plan.
- Follow your meal plan if you have one. Learn how carbohydrates impact your blood sugar, and work with your diabetes care team to find the best meal plan for you.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Limit drinking alcohol. Alcohol can raise blood sugar levels, but can also cause dangerously low blood sugar levels. Work with your provider to determine how much is safe to drink.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 02/11/2020.
How Well Does Metformin Lower Blood Sugar
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For People With Type 1 Diabetes
Contact your doctor or go to hospital if:
- Vomiting stops you from drinking and makes eating difficult
- Blood glucose levels remain high
- Moderate to large ketones are present in the urine.
In type 1 diabetes, high blood glucose levels can progress to a serious condition called Ketoacidosis.
What Are The Signs Of High And Low Blood Sugar
The symptoms vary depending on whether you have hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Find out how to spot the warning signs and stabilize your glucose.
One of the challenges of managing diabetes is maintaining consistent blood sugar levels. Even with diligence, some situations can cause high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, while others can bring on low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia.
After all, its not just carbohydrate intake that influences the amount of glucose coursing through your bloodstream when you have type 2 diabetes. Emotional stress and certain medications can increase your blood sugar levels, and a boost in activity can cause it to drop, says Megan ONeill, CDCES, a medical science liaison for diabetes care at Abbott healthcare company in Monterey, California. Sometimes people experience a spike in their blood sugar early in the morning due to the dawn effect, a temporary surge of hormones that occurs as the body prepares to wake, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
For people with diabetes, managing blood glucose levels is especially important, ONeill says. Levels that are too low or high can result in complications that affect your kidneys, heart, and vision, reduce your quality of life, require expensive interventions, or even be fatal.
- Between 80 and 130 milligrams per deciliter before meals
- Less than 180 mg/dL two hours after meals
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Treatment For Underlying Psychological Conditions Can Treat Brittle Diabetes
For people whose brittle diabetes is caused by underlying psychological issues, treating these issues may help manage their diabetes.
For example, a 1991 study in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry compared two groups of children with diabetes. Both groups had grossly abnormal blood glucose profiles and required repeated admission to the hospital. A control group received inpatient medical intervention, while the experimental group received psychoanalytic therapy three to four times a week for an average of 15 weeks. The control group reverted to the prehospitalization level of metabolic control within three months, but the experimental group improved diabetic control and maintained these positive results at a one-year checkup.
A 2020 review published in Current Diabetes Reports discusses the importance of providing psychological interventions that have specific modifiable behavioral targets for people with diabetes . “Specific modifiable behavioral targets for behavioral health providers treating PWD include glycemic control, adherence, depression, motivational status, and lifestyle modifications. Psychological interventions can target these outcomes through a number of interventions, including behavioral management and reinforcement, guided problem-solving, supporting patients in setting realistic and attainable goals, and teaching relaxation strategies for managing diabetes-related stressors” .
Diabetes Medications That Work With The Pancreas
Most people who have type 2 diabetes need to take prescription medications, some of which act specifically on the pancreas to lower A1C.
Sulfonylureas and Meglitinides
How they work: Lower blood sugar by encouraging the pancreas to produce more insulin
How they work: Block the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which increases the amount of GLP1 in the body
GLP-1 Receptor Agonists
How they work: Mimic the effects of the hormone GLP-1, which triggers your pancreas to produce more insulin after you eat and decreases glucagon. These drugs also help you feel full after a meal and slow the rate at which the stomach empties, which may help you lose weight
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How Does High Blood Sugar Affect The Body
High sugar in the blood can lead to several other symptoms and complications. They include:
- Urination and thirst: High blood sugar goes into the kidneys and urine. This attracts more water, causing frequent urination. This can also lead to increased thirst, even if someone drinks liquids.
- Weight loss: High blood sugar can cause sudden or unexplained weight loss. This occurs because the bodys cells are not getting the glucose they need, so the body burns muscle and fat for energy instead.
- Numbness and tingling: High blood sugar numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is due to diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.
Do You Know Why Blood Sugar Levels Rise After Eating
New Delhi: Right after we finish eating, blood sugar spikes occur when glucose, a simple sugar builds up in the bloodstream.
Those who suffer from diabetes would experience a sudden spike in their blood sugar since their bodies cannot use glucose properly.
According to Healthline, the body creates blood sugar by digesting some food into sugar that circulates in the bloodstream. Blood sugar is used for energy. The sugar that isnt needed to fuel your body right away gets stored in cells for later use.
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Experts say that since too much sugar in the blood can be harmful, it can lead to a lot of health issues, including deadly diseases of the heart, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels.
Symptoms of hyperglycemia typically begin when your blood glucose goes above 250 milligrams per deciliter . Symptoms can worsen the longer its untreated.
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The Power Of Consistency
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Tips To Measure And Control Portion Sizes
Obesity is a growing epidemic, as more people than ever are struggling to control their weight.
Increased portion sizes are thought to contribute to overeating and unwanted weight gain .
Research indicates that many factors can influence how much you eat.
People tend to eat almost all of what they serve themselves. Therefore, controlling portion sizes can help prevent overindulging .
Here are 9 tips to measure and control portion sizes both at home and on the go.
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Psychological Causes Of Brittle Diabetes
Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between mental health and brittle diabetes. A 2017 study in the Journal Nutrients found that eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, binge eating disorder, rumination, and pica can complicate the clinical course of type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes and a diagnosis of an eating disorder are more likely to have episodes of DKA and hypoglycemia, the hallmarks of brittle diabetes. They are more likely to be hospitalized and when they are, their hospital stays are longer than the stays of other patients. Overall, patients with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder are at higher risk of premature mortality.
Depression and other mental health conditions can also contribute to brittle diabetes. Depression can increase hyperglycemia , which is concerning because depression is roughly three times more prevalent in patients with Type 1 diabetes than in their healthy peers. In addition, a 2002 study from the Journal of Psychosomatic Research shows that, “Children with diabetes have a two-fold greater prevalence of depression, and adolescents up to three-fold greater, than youth without diabetes.”
Other mental health conditions linked to brittle diabetes include borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders . Because of the relationship between mental health and brittle diabetes, doctors should conduct mental health screenings for patients with uncontrolled diabetes.
How Should You Treat Hypoglycaemia
The symptoms of low blood glucose include: weakness, dizziness or feeling light-headed, nervousness, sweating, pounding heartbeat, hunger and thirst, and confusion.
To tackle hypoglycaemia, follow the 15-15 rule: Have 15 grams of carbohydrate or fast-acting sugar, such as half a cup of regular fruit juice or 4 glucose tablets, to raise your blood glucose. Check your level after 15 minutes. If its still below 70 mg/dL , repeat the above step until your blood sugar reaches normal levels. Once your blood glucose is at least 70 mg/dL , have a snack or a meal to ensure it doesnt lower again.
Severely low blood sugarIf your hypoglycaemia is left untreated, or if your blood sugar level remains abnormally low and does not increase, you may pass out. In such cases, you need to be given emergency glucagon and require immediate medical attention.
The people around you, such as yourfamily members, friends, or co-workers, should be taught how to administer glucagon in case of an emergency. They should also remember: NOT to give you insulin, as it will lower your blood sugar even more NOT to give you anything to eat or drink if you are unconscious, as it could cause you to choke.
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Blood Sugar Spike Causes
Blood sugar levels fluctuate all day long. When you eat food, particularly foods high in carbohydrates like bread, potatoes, or pasta, your blood sugar will immediately begin to rise.
If your blood sugar is consistently high, you need to talk with a doctor about improving your diabetes management. Blood sugar rises when:
- youre not taking enough insulin
- your insulin isnt lasting as long as you think it is
- youre not taking your oral diabetes medication
- your medication dosage needs to be adjusted
- youre using expired insulin
- youre not following your nutritional plan
- you have an illness or infection
- youre taking certain medications, like steroids
- youre under physical stress, such as an injury or surgery
- youre under emotional stress, such as trouble at work or home, or with money problems
If your blood sugar is usually well managed but youre still experiencing unexplained blood sugar spikes, there might be an acute, or more recent, cause.
Try keeping a record of all the food and drinks you consume. Then check your blood sugar levels according to your doctors recommendations.
Its common to record your blood sugar reading first thing in the morning, before youve eaten, and then again 2 hours after eating.
Even a few days of recorded information can help you and your doctor learn whats causing your blood sugar spikes.
Common reasons for blood sugar spikes include:
Diabetes Sign: Your Gums Bleed
The same sugar-loving bacteria that cause your cuts to heal more slowly can also mess with your gums. That can make them red, swollen, tender, and more likely to bleed when you brush or floss, says Dr. Halprin.
Normally, your body fights off infection-causing germs in your mouth. But the elevated sugars make your mouth a much friendlier place for the bacteria, and decrease your mouths natural bacteria-fighting properties, she says.
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Insulin Resistance: Understanding What Happens In Type 2 Diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, the body has become insulin resistant, meaning insulin is no longer able to effectively remove sugar from the blood. As a result, the pancreas ramps up its insulin production to try to keep up with the amount of carbohydrates youre eating a state of overproduction that can lead to B-cell fatigue.
When B-cells become fatigued , they can no longer make enough insulin to shuttle glucose out of your bloodstream. The end result: hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar.
Diabetes Sign: Youre Exhausted
Fatigue is a classic side effect of dehydration. So if youre peeing more often and are thirstier than usual, you might find yourself feeling weirdly wiped out, explains Elizabeth Halprin, M.D., clinical director of adult diabetes at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston.
You might feel zonked even if youre still going to bed and waking up at your usual time. Getting up multiple times throughout the nightsay, if you need to pee interrupts your sleep, too, Dr. Halprin says. As a result, you end up getting less snooze time than you think.
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Tingling Hands And Feet
Over the years, hyperglycemia can begin to impact nerve function and eventually cause nerve damage, called neuropathy, Dr. Hatipoglu says. The most common kind of neuropathy is peripheral, according to the NIDDK, which affects the extremities. You might start noticing feelings of tingling, numbness, or burning in your hands, feet, arms, and legs, per the Mayo Clinic.
A Transplant Can Help With Brittle Diabetes
In addition to technological innovations such as CGM and insulin pumps, transplantation of a pancreas or islet cells may help with brittle diabetes. A healthy pancreas produces insulin to control blood sugar, and islet cells are a type of cell in the pancreas, according to Medical News Today.
A 2013 study in the journal Diabetes Care examined the outcome in brittle diabetes patients who received a pancreas transplant alone . These patients had recurrent hypoglycemic episodes or hypoglycemic unawareness and failed to improve with insulin therapy, including use of an insulin pump. The study found that the transplant helped patients achieve long-term normal blood sugar levels, avoid hypoglycemia, and avoid the development or progression of secondary diabetes complications.
An islet cell transplant is another treatment option for patients with brittle diabetes . Here, doctors transplant islet cells isolated from the pancreas of a deceased donor or islet cells isolated from the patient’s own pancreas. In this procedure, the islet cells are infused into the patient’s liver, where they can produce insulin.
Soon, patients may be able to utilize an artificial pancreas . The bionic pancreas trial was more effective at keeping blood sugar levels in a normal range than “standard-of-care management” in patients with type 1 diabetes. While it is not yet commercially available, it is a promising development.
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Hyperglycemia Or High Blood Sugar Is A Condition That Is Becoming Prevalent Among The Young And Old
Society has become affluent, so people prefer expensive, sugary desserts. So the fact that there are more people with the signs of high blood sugar than before is not surprising.
If diabetes and hyperglycemia run in your family, take some time to understand its causes and symptoms. This article will point out the signs of high blood sugar and teach you how to keep it in check.
Food Insecurity And Lack Of Insulin Access Can Lead To Brittle Diabetes
While the original definition of brittle diabetes implied a biological basis for this condition, a newer definition includes uncontrolled blood sugar swings caused by a lack of insulin access and food insecurity, according to a 2021 study in the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. People who lack access to insulin may ration their insulin supply, which can lead to DKA, blindness, heart disease, and disability, according to a 2019 article in the American Journal of Managed Care.
The World Health Organization only considers medication affordable if a 30-day supply costs one day’s wages or less based on the wages of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. A 2017 study published in the journal PLOS One found that in low-income and lower-middle income countries, the median cost of a 30-day supply of diabetes medication was more than one day’s wages. In other words, “Paying more than one days’ wages was considered unaffordable” . These findings highlight the difficulty of obtaining insulin because of financial stress in many parts of the world.
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