Ketoacidosis: When Hyperglycemia Becomes Severe For People With Type 1 Diabetes
If you have type 1 diabetes, it is important to recognize and treat hyperglycemia because if left untreated it can lead to a dangerous condition called . This happens because without glucose, the bodys cells must use ketones as a source of energy. Ketoacidosis develops when ketones build up in the blood. It can become serious and lead to diabetic coma or even death. According to the American Diabetes Association, ketoacidosis affects people with type 1 diabetes, but it rarely affects people with type 2 diabetes.
Many symptoms of ketoacidosis are similar to hyperglycemia. The hallmarks of ketoacidosis are:
High level of ketones in the urine
Shortness of breath
Additionally, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and confusion may accompany ketoacidosis. Immediate medical attention is highly recommended if you have any of these symptoms.
Some people with diabetes are instructed by their doctor to regularly test ketone levels. Ketone testing is performed two ways: using urine or using blood. For a urine test, you dip a special type of test strip into your urine. For testing blood ketones, a special meter and test strips are used. The test is performed exactly like a blood glucose test. If ketone testing is part of your self-monitoring of diabetes, your healthcare professional will provide you with other information including prevention.
Why Blood Sugar Levels Rise Overnight
When you go to bed, your blood sugar reading is 110, but when you wake up in the morning, it has shot up to 150. Why does this happen?
To understand how blood sugar levels can rise overnight without your eating anything, we have to look at where glucose comes from and where it goes while we sleep.
During the day, the carbohydrates we eat are digested into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream. Some of this glucose goes to the liver, where it is stored for later use.
At night, while we are asleep, the liver releases glucose into the bloodstream. The liver acts as our glucose warehouse and keeps us supplied until we eat breakfast. The amount of glucose being used is matched by the amount of glucose being released by the liver, so blood sugar levels should remain constant.
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How To Lower Blood Sugar Mayo Clinic
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How Is Diabetes During Pregnancy Diagnosed
Nearly all nondiabetic pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. A glucose screening test is given during this time. For the test, you drink a glucose drink and have your blood glucose levels tested after 2 hours.
If this test shows a high blood glucose level, a 3-hour glucose tolerance test will be done. If results of the second test are not normal, gestational diabetes is diagnosed.
It Can Cause Damage To The Feet
One of the dangers of diabetic neuropathy, which has just been discussed, is it can cause significant damage to your feet. At times the problem can be so severe that amputation may be warranted. Because of nerve damage to the lower extremities, your feet are at risk of becoming injured. Reduced sensation due to diabetic neuropathy may keep you from noticing an injury, thus increasing risk of it being infected. Since high blood sugar can also impair blood circulation to the feet, the infection may worsen and spread rather easily, which is something that may require amputation.
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May Accelerate The Skin Aging Process
Wrinkles are a natural sign of aging. They appear eventually, regardless of your health.
However, poor food choices can worsen wrinkles and speed the skin aging process.
Advanced glycation end products are compounds formed by reactions between sugar and protein in your body. They are suspected to play a key role in skin aging .
Consuming a diet high in refined carbs and sugar leads to the production of AGEs, which may cause your skin to age prematurely .
AGEs damage collagen and elastin, which are proteins that help the skin stretch and keep its youthful appearance.
When collagen and elastin become damaged, the skin loses its firmness and begins to sag.
In one study, women who consumed more carbs, including added sugars, had a more wrinkled appearance than women on a high-protein, lower-carb diet (
Sugary foods can increase the production of AGEs, which can accelerate skin aging and wrinkle formation.
Eating Lots Of Refined Carbs
“Most refined grains lack protein and fiber,” says Katie Tomaschko, MS, RDN, a contributor at Sporting Smiles. “Thus, eating too many refined grainsespecially with nothing elsewill cause blood sugar spikes and drops.”
As a general rule, Tomaschko says it’s best to always opt for whole grains whenever possiblefor instance, brown rice or quinoa instead of white rice, whole-wheat bread instead of white bread, and oatmeal instead of a refined grain breakfast cereal.
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Are You Suffering From Untreated Hyperglycemia
Untreated hyperglycemia leads to serious complications. Signs are hard to identify, but self-monitoring and early treatment lowers these risks and improves quality of life.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, affects people who have diabetes. Since the symptoms are difficult to feel and easily go unnoticed, the condition often goes untreated. Prolonged hyperglycemia is the main cause of almost all the complications associated with diabetes but good blood sugar control can prevent them. The more you know about high blood sugar, the more likely you are to recognize it, treat it, and hopefully take steps to prevent it.
Reasons Why Having High Blood Sugar Is Bad For You
Hyperglycemia is the medical term for high blood sugar, and it affects individuals who suffer from diabetes. Its very important to keep the levels of sugar in your blood within the normal and healthy range. Otherwise, you may encounter the many serious complications of having high blood sugar for a long time.
Below you will come across some of the reasons why having high blood sugar is something that you should avoid. Especially if you have family and friends who are diabetic or overweight or do not exercise regularly or eat healthily, dont forget to share this article afterwards on your different social media sites.
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Choose The Right Medication
Two classes of injectable hormones, GLP-1 agonists , semaglutide ) and amylin mimetics , have powerful effects on post-meal blood sugar. Both GLP-1s and Symlin slow gastric emptying and keep carbohydrates from raising the blood sugar too quickly after meals. Symlin, which is a replacement for the amylin hormone , also helps to diminish appetite and blunt post-meal glucagon secretion. GLP-1s blunt appetite and promote the growth of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas of those with type 2 diabetes. So both can contribute to better post-meal high blood glucose control.
Your choice of oral medication can also impact your after-meal control. Sulfonylureas stimulate the pancreas to secrete a little extra insulin throughout the day, without regard to meal timing. Because these medications fail to concentrate the insulin secretion at times when it is needed most, after-meal blood sugars can run very high. There are alternative medications called meglitinides which also stimulate the pancreas but do so in a much faster and shorter manner. When taken at mealtimes, meglitinides produce better after-meal high blood glucose control than sulfonylureas.
Another class of oral diabetes medications improve after-meal control by partially blocking the transport of sugars across the intestines and into the bloodstream. However, these medications can sometimes cause gas, bloating and stomach upset, so the pros dont always outweigh the cons.
Can Pain Medication Cause High Blood Sugar
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What Causes Blood Sugar To Rise Without Eating
For the most part, food as you gathered from above, is the main driver for rises in blood sugar. However, life as you know is never a straight line.
There are other factors that can cause blood sugar to rise without eating. Some of that has to do with inter-play of hormones.
Stress hormones like cortisol, catecholamines , mobilize glucose from the stored glucose in the liver. Glycogen is the stored form of glucose in the liver.
These hormones cause a rise in blood sugar without eating both in diabetics and non-diabetics. Any thing that causes stress to your body will cause your blood sugar to rise.
Prescription and some over-the-counter medications like nasal decongestants can also cause your blood sugar to rise without eating.
Below are some of the causes of high blood sugar without eating:
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- Nasal decongestants containing phenylephrine or pseoudoephedrine
As you tell from the above list, yes, stress can cause high blood sugar in non-diabetics. Stress from whatever origin has the potential to increase cortisol levels in the blood.
And as I explained earlier anything that causes liver cells to mobilize their glycogen stores unnecessarily will raise your blood sugar. Stress will do just that.
Should non-diabetics check blood sugar?
Your doctor may not suspect you have blood sugar regulation problems unless you have symptoms. Sadly, lots of people stay in the Impaired Glucose Tolerance zone for years without symptoms.
What About Natural Sweeteners
Though some natural sweeteners, like honey and maple syrup, are generally not as heavily processed as table sugar or corn syrup, they are still relatively pure sources of sugar and contain almost no fiber.
Many other sweeteners, marketed as being natural, should also be considered added sugar. These include agave syrup, coconut sugar and cane sugar, to name a few.
Therefore, they should be consumed in moderation like all added sugars, ideally making up less than 10% of your daily calories .
While added sugars are strongly linked to the development of diabetes, natural sugars found in whole fruits and vegetables dont have the same effect.
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Why Is My Diabetes Not Controlled By Medicine Anymore
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How To Treat Hyperglycemia
Just as there are immediate complications of hyperglycemia and long-term complications of hyperglycemia, there are also immediate and long-term treatment recommendations.
If you or someone you know are showing signs of either DKA or HHS, emergency treatment is required either via the emergency room or admission into the hospital.
Most instances of hyperglycemia are not emergent, though and can be treated at home in a variety of ways.
- Fast-acting insulin: Individuals with type I diabetes and those with type II diabetes on sliding scale insulin can use a bolus of fast-acting insulin to correct hyperglycemia. Insulin injection is the only way to immediately treat high blood sugar. You should start to see the blood sugar drop within about one hour, but you will not see the full effect for about 3-4 hours after injection. If your blood sugar does not start to come down after 3 hours, consider checking your insulin vile to make sure that it has not passed the expiration date or that there is nothing floating in the bottle that might have contaminated the medication. Contact your doctor if thereâs no improvement in blood sugar. Oral medications work in a variety of ways, but none of them are used to treat high blood sugar in the moment.
A diagnosis of diabetes can be overwhelming and it can be difficult to know where to start. Take things one step at a time. Set SMART goals and check in with your progress frequently. Treating hyperglycemia is just one part of managing diabetes.
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Tips For Avoiding Glucose Spikes From Food
Someone with diabetes should eat meals at regular times of the day and should not vary their portion sizes. It is a great idea to eat one more serving of vegetables in a week. Drinking more water is also helps glucose levels. When drinking caffeine or alcohol, make sure you test your blood glucose often to be wary of your levels.
The medication comes in the form of pills or insulin injections. Dosage is incredibly important because it directly impacts blood glucose.
Moreover, medication timing can also be critical. You can take some medications at any time of day, while others have an optimum time to be taken, like at meals. For instance, taking insulin either before or after a meal is critical for many. Taking medications at the correct time every day, and checking personal blood sugar levels regularly will help ensure that diabetes is being regulated properly.
Remember to consult with your doctor on non-diabetes medications, as these can interfere with your diabetes medications and blood glucose levels.
A regular amount of light activity has been found to lower glucose. Walking, yoga, and pilates all aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Oppositely, high-intensity exercise like sprinting, running, or weight lifting has been known to raise blood glucose levels. A racing heart, hunger, trembling, headache, and dizziness are all symptoms of a spike in levels.
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Despite the introduction of HbA1c for diagnosis of diabetes by the World Health Organization, this practice has not been adopted everywhere.
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