What Are Good Postprandial Blood Sugar
What Is The Normal Blood Sugar Level, Worry Less About Glucose Levels, Blood Sugar Levels What Are Good Postprandial Blood Sugar.
To analyze the effect of hyperglycemia on ischemic stroke, we subjected mice to permanent distal MCAO.
People with hyperglycemia and diabetes are therefore advised to keep their liquid intake optimal, especially when feeling typical symptoms, to avoid glucose peaks in blood and further What Are Good Postprandial Blood Sugar complications.
Research has shown that Normal Blood Sugar impaired glucose tolerance itself could also be a threat issue for the development of coronary heart .
Why Checking Postprandial Glucose Is Important
Checking your fasting blood glucose levels makes a difference when it comes to successfully managing your diabetes. But are you also making sure to test your blood glucose levels after you eat? Heres why you should.
Checking your blood glucose levels at least once a day many people do it first thing in the morning should be part of your overall plan for managing type 2 diabetes. You can use results to better decide what you do next, and how to keep your blood sugar levels where you and your doctor want them.
But if youre only testing your glucose levels once a day, youre likely missing the full picture. “Postprandial glucose levels meaning sugar after the meal give you and your care team more important information about how the body is able to manage glucose after a meal,” explains endocrinologist Pratima Kumar, MD, an assistant professor of endocrinology at the University of Texas at Austin. It informs us if the blood glucose has returned to normal after the meal intake.
The American Diabetes Association recommends checking fasting blood sugar levels, and then testing PPG levels one to two hours after a meal. This is especially important if target A1C goals arent being met this blood test helps shows how well your overall diabetes management plan is working.
You might also need to check your blood glucose numbers at other times during the day, or after certain activities.
What Are Blood Sugar Targets
A blood sugar target is the range you try to reach as much as possible. These are typical targets:
- Before a meal: 80 to 130 mg/dL.
- Two hours after the start of a meal: Less than 180 mg/dL.
Your blood sugar targets may be different depending on your age, any additional health problems you have, and other factors. Be sure to talk to your health care team about which targets are best for you.
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Question : Under What Circumstances Should People With Diabetes Be Tesed For Ppg
The only setting in which PPG monitoring has been shown to improve outcomes is gestational diabetes. In one study, women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned either to a treatment program in which therapy was adjusted to achieve predefined FPG and PPG levels or to one targeting premeal and bedtime glucose levels . The women assigned to postprandial monitoring achieved a lower HbA1c and required fewer Caesarian sections for cephalopelvic disproportion, and their babies suffered less frequently from macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Whether similar outcomes could have been achieved with premeal monitoring if lower premeal targets had been selected is unknown. There are no comparable randomized clinical studies in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes examining whether PPG monitoring improves outcomes.
Are there other clinical situations in which PPG monitoring should be considered part of the overall treatment plan? There are no adequate randomized clinical trial data to answer this question, but the following are clinical situations in which PPG monitoring could be considered:
Fix The Fastings First
Keep this mantra in mind when deciding where to start in Type 2 diabetes. Metformin is recommended as a first-line agent and supports the mantra. By inhibiting hepatic glucose production, metformin primarily targets preprandial glucose production. Long-acting insulins like Levemir or Lantus also target preprandial glucose by lasting throughout the day and staying at low concentrations which helps clean up excess glucose let out from the liver overnight. Thiazolidinediones like pioglitazone primarily target preprandial glucose by sensitizing muscle, liver, fat, and other tissue to insulin which allows them to uptake more glucose.
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Why Is Your Postprandial Blood Sugar Important
Postprandial blood sugar levels are important for people both with and without diabetes.
For people with diabetes, postprandial blood sugar, along with fasting blood sugar your levels when you havent eaten is an important part of overall diabetes management. Consistently high levels could mean that your treatment plan may need to be adjusted.
Left uncontrolled, elevated blood sugar can increase your risk of diabetes complications such as heart disease, kidney disease, stroke, blindness, and other health conditions.
If you dont have diabetes, postprandial blood sugar measurements can give you clues about your metabolic health.
If your levels remain high a couple of hours after you eat, its an indication that you may have insulin resistance, which is when your cells arent able to take in glucose from the blood as well.
Check with a healthcare professional if you are concerned about your postprandial blood sugar levels, as they will be able to do a number of tests to establish if your blood sugar levels are within a healthy range.
Gradual increases in blood sugar after you eat, followed by gradual drops, are a normal part of digestion and are nothing to be concerned with.
However, if your blood sugar regularly spikes too high or stays high for too long, and dips below your baseline afterward, you could experience both immediate and long-term health effects.
In the short term, sharp increases and dips in blood sugar may result in:
Postprandial Blood Sugar Readings: Why Theyve Gained Favor
There are several, interrelated reasons why it is now believed that analyzing postprandial glucose can confer important, additive medical insights. They all relate to the fact that what happens to your blood glucose after a meal gives you a vital glimpse into your metabolic health, and most people are predominantly in the postprandial state during waking hours. Here are some of the important research findings and clinical conclusions:
- Definitively, postprandial blood sugar monitoring has been shown to improve outcomes if you are pregnant and have gestational diabetes.
- Postprandial hyperglycemia raises risk of cardiovascular disease , coronary heart disease and cardiovascular mortality, even in individuals with normal fasting glucose. It is now well known that in diabetic patients, 2h plasma glucose is a better risk predictor for coronary heart disease than fasting plasma glucose.
- In individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who are treated with glucose-lowering agents expected primarily to reduce PPG, monitoring may be useful in titrating these treatments or in confirming that patients have responded to the intervention. It is also possible that PPG monitoring may be beneficial to evaluate the effect of changes in nutrition or exercise patterns.
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Who Should Test Their Postprandial Blood Sugar
Understanding your postprandial blood sugar levels can be important for everyone, regardless of your current health.
If you regularly notice any of the above symptoms after a meal, testing your postprandial blood sugar responses could help identify problems early.
But even if youre not experiencing symptoms, blood sugar responses to the same food can vary hugely between different people. Thats why anyone can benefit from a better understanding of their blood sugar responses.
Our research shows that nutrition is personal, and the foods that will give you big blood sugar rises will be different from another persons.
With ZOEs at-home test, you can learn about your personal blood sugar responses by using a sensor called a continuous glucose monitor. This important tool allows you to measure your blood sugar levels before and after meals to see how you respond to the typical foods you eat, as well as our carefully balanced test muffins.
We compare your results with those of thousands of other people who have eaten the same standardized muffins and give you an in-depth picture of your blood sugar responses.
But blood sugar levels are only one part of your metabolic health.
ZOEs at-home test kit also looks at your blood fat levels and your gut microbiome. These are linked to your responses to foods, too, and your risk of developing metabolic diseases like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
You can take our free quiz to find out more about how ZOE can help you.
How To Measure Your Spikes
The American Diabetes Association recommends you check your blood sugar levels right before mealtime with a blood sample from a finger stick. Then do it again 1 to 2 hours after that first bite of food.
Keep this up for a week or so. Write down the time and the blood sugar number. Make a note about anything you think might affect your levels, like medicine or exercise. And don’t forget to log exactly what you ate, along with portion sizes and the amount of carbs.What levels are too high after a meal? Experts vary on what the number should be, but the ADA says a general goal is a blood sugar level under 180 mg/dL, 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Talk to your doctor about what you should aim for, and don’t adjust your medicine without speaking to them first.
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The Management Of Post
Recently there has been considerable debate regarding the importance of post-prandial glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Previously, therapeutic intervention focused on optimizing overall glycemic control as assessed by glycated hemoglobin levels, with a strong emphasis on fasting plasma glucose . There was concern in some quarters that setting PPG goals could be unrealistic and even unsafe because they carry an increased risk for hypoglycemia.1 However, a growing body of evidence suggests that reducing PPG is as important, or even more important, for achieving HbA1c goals.
Post-prandial and post-challenge hyperglycemia is associated with a variety of complications including nephropathy and retinopathy,24 decreased myocardial blood volume/blood flow,25 increased risk for ancer,26â29 and impaired cognitive function in the elderly.30 In MI patients both with and without diabetes, high levels of blood glucose at admission have been associated with an increased risk for death.31
Table 1: Summary of Post-prandial Glucose Guidelines
How Is The Ppbs Test Done
The PPBS test is done by drawing a blood sample from your arm. The test must be done after 2 hours starting from the time you take your meal. If the test is taken 2 hours after you finish the meal, you might get the wrong results.Patients are recommended to take their usual anti-diabetic medicines at the usual timings to get accurate results.
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What Is The Importance Of Ppbs
The PPBS test is an important parameter in diabetes management. Generally, after 10 minutes of starting your meal, the blood sugar level starts increasing and it is at its peak approximately 2 hours after your meal. The PPBS blood test helps doctors analyze how your body responds to sugar and starch that you intake. The level of PPBS helps evaluate how well you are able to manage your diabetes. It also gives a better idea of what measures should be taken in the future, to control sugar levels. PPBS helps in achieving long-term goals. It also acts as an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases.
Why You Should Keep An Eye On It
When your blood sugar is high, you can get symptoms like a foggy-headed feeling that makes it hard to focus or think clearly. Your energy may also take a dive, and you may feel nervous or moody.
If your levels go too low, you could even pass out. In the long run, if your blood sugar stays up, you could be at risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, or other problems.
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How To Control Post Prandial Blood Sugar Levels
If your PPBS test results show abnormal results you must immediately consult an endocrinologist who may prescribe medications or make dietary changes. Here are a few measures that can help you control your PPBS levels. Eat low-carb diet foods by reducing the intake of carbohydrates and whole grains. Go for a Mediterranean diet or in other words eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. Avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Go for a light walk for at least half an hour after meals. Exercise regularly. Eat your meals in intervals. Avoid heavy meals. Take your medications on time. Regulate your blood sugar levels by going for regular checkups and tests.
How Can I Treat High Blood Sugar
Talk to your doctor about how to keep your blood sugar levels within your target range. Your doctor may suggest the following:
- Be more active. Regular exercise can help keep your blood sugar levels on track. Important: dont exercise if ketones are present in your urine. This can make your blood sugar go even higher.
- Take medicine as instructed. If your blood sugar is often high, your doctor may change how much medicine you take or when you take it.
- Follow your diabetes meal plan. Ask your doctor or dietitian for help if youre having trouble sticking to it.
- Check your blood sugar as directed by your doctor. Check more often if youre sick or if youre concerned about high or low blood sugar.
- Talk to your doctor about adjusting how much insulin you take and what types of insulin to use.
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Ppg Dynamics And Biology
Overall glycemia results from the sum of basal and PPG exposure. CGM studies have provided a clear understanding of the dynamics of postmeal BG control in healthy individuals, with PPG peaking 30 to 60 minutes after a meal starts, with maximum levels < 140 mg/dL. BG levels generally normalize to preprandial levels after 2 to 3 hours, although it can take 5 to 6 hours after a meal for complete absorption of ingested carbohydrates . The primary factors determining PPG profile are: insulin secretion, insulin action in stimulating glucose uptake and suppressing glucose production, glucagon suppression, glucose effectiveness in stimulating its own uptake and production, and gastric emptying and incretin hormones. Defects in many of these five factors can underlie postprandial hyperglycemia in prediabetes and overt diabetes . For patients with diabetes, the size, composition, and timing of meals, preprandial glycemic level, comorbidities, and duration and type of diabetes may also modulate this relatively complex network .
Question : What Are The Benefits And Risks Of Specifically Lowering Ppg In An Effort To Achieve Better Glycemic Control
Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that a reduction in the long-term complications of diabetes is proportional to average glycemia as determined by HbA1c. However, it is unclear whether reducing PPG provides additional improvements in HbA1c.
What, if any, are the documented benefits of specifically lowering PPG? The definitive answer to this question can only come from well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials. The availability of oral agents and insulin analogs that specifically target postprandial glucose levels has provided tools to perform such studies.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, rapid-acting oral insulin secretagogues, and rapid-acting insulin analogs predominantly lower PPG. They also reduce HbA1c. It is unclear, however, to what extent HbA1c is lowered by these drugs because of their effects on PPG as compared with their effects on FPG. Furthermore, it is not clear whether therapies that target PPG provide unique benefits relative to other pharmacological therapies that lower HbA1c comparably. Performing such studies will be important.
It has been suggested that agents that specifically lower PPG may decrease the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. These claims have not been consistently supported by randomized, controlled studies. There appear to be no unique risks associated with the specific lowering of PPG to achieve HbA1c goals.
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What Are Normal And High Levels Of Postprandial Blood Sugar
Typically, blood sugar levels peak between 1 and 2 hours after eating, when the carbohydrates in your food have been broken down into glucose or sugar and this has entered your bloodstream.
To test your postprandial blood sugar responses, healthcare professionals can use an oral glucose tolerance test .
For this test, a healthcare professional measures your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink a special sweet drink that contains 75 grams of glucose. The results indicate the following:
A postprandial blood sugar measurement below 140 mg/dL is considered normal.
If your levels are between 140 and 199 mg/dL , it indicates that you may have prediabetes.
A reading of 200 mg/dL or higher suggests that you have diabetes, but your doctor may use more than one test to make a diagnosis.
These values are specific for the OGTT test and the high amounts of sugar in the drink that you consume as part of it.
For adults who are living with diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommend specific postprandial blood glucose target ranges to aim for during everyday life:
For people without diabetes, there arent any guidelines for postprandial blood sugar levels when eating their normal diet.
The thresholds that healthcare professionals use for making a diabetes diagnosis are specific to the OGTT test.
How Is It Determined If The Dawn Phenomenon Or Somogyi Effect Is Causing The High Blood Sugar Levels
Your doctor will likely ask you to check your blood sugar levels between 2 a.m. and 3 a.m. for several nights in a row. If your blood sugar is consistently low during this time, the Somogyi effect is suspected. If the blood sugar is normal during this time period, the dawn phenomenon is more likely to be the cause.
Some additional clues that the Somogyi effect may be the cause include nightmares, restless sleep and overnight sweating as these are all signs of low blood sugar levels.
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