For People With Type 2 Diabetes
At the time the diabetes is first diagnosed, about 1 in 8 people have microalbuminuria and 1 in 50 have proteinuria. This is not because diabetic kidney disease happens straightaway in some cases but because many people with type 2 diabetes do not have their diabetes diagnosed for quite some time after the disease had begun.
Of those people who do not have any kidney problem when their diabetes is diagnosed, microalbuminuria develops in about 1 in 7 people and proteinuria in 1 in 20 people, within five years.
Diabetic kidney disease is much more common in Asian and black people with diabetes than in white people.
Increases Your Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes has more than doubled over the past 30 years .
Though there are many reasons for this, there is a clear link between excessive sugar consumption and diabetes risk.
Obesity, which is often caused by consuming too much sugar, is considered the strongest risk factor for diabetes .
Whats more, prolonged high-sugar consumption drives resistance to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels.
Insulin resistance causes blood sugar levels to rise and strongly increases your risk of diabetes.
A population study comprising over 175 countries found that the risk of developing diabetes grew by 1.1% for every 150 calories of sugar, or about one can of soda, consumed per day .
Other studies have also shown that people who drink sugar-sweetened beverages, including fruit juice, are more likely to develop diabetes .
A high-sugar diet may lead to obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Inhibition Of The Sympathetic Nervous System
The role of sympathetic over-activity in intradialytic hypertension has not been firmly established. It is clear that patients with renal disease have evidence of sympathetic nerve activity, which normalizes after nephrectomy. Whether patients who have undergone bilateral nephrectomy develop intradialytic hypertension is unknown but this certainly cannot be routinely advocated to control BP. Adrenergic blockers such as alpha- and beta-blockers should be considered as therapeutic options to control BP. In particular, carvedilol and labetolol with combined alpha and beta-adrenergic blockade should be considered as they are not significantly removed by hemodialysis.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetic Kidney Disease
You are unlikely to have symptoms with early diabetic kidney disease – for example, if you just have microalbuminuria . Symptoms tend to develop when the kidney disease progresses. The symptoms at first tend to be vague and nonspecific, such as feeling tired, having less energy than usual and just not feeling well. With more severe kidney disease, symptoms that may develop include:
- Difficulty thinking clearly.
- Needing to pass urine more often than usual.
- Being pale due to anaemia.
As the kidney function declines, various other problems may develop – for example, anaemia and an imbalance of calcium, phosphate and other chemicals in the bloodstream. These can cause various symptoms, such as tiredness due to anaemia, and bone ‘thinning’ or fractures due to calcium and phosphate imbalance. End-stage kidney failure is eventually fatal unless treated.
May Increase Your Risk Of Heart Disease
High-sugar diets have been associated with an increased risk of many diseases, including heart disease, the number one cause of death worldwide .
Evidence suggests that high-sugar diets can lead to obesity, inflammation and high triglyceride, blood sugar and blood pressure levels all risk factors for heart disease .
Additionally, consuming too much sugar, especially from sugar-sweetened drinks, has been linked to atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by fatty, artery-clogging deposits .
A study in over 30,000 people found that those who consumed 1721% of calories from added sugar had a 38% greater risk of dying from heart disease, compared to those consuming only 8% of calories from added sugar .
Just one 16-ounce can of soda contains 52 grams of sugar, which equates to more than 10% of your daily calorie consumption, based on a 2,000-calorie diet .
This means that one sugary drink a day can already put you over the recommended daily limit for added sugar.
Consuming too much added sugar increases heart disease risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure and inflammation. High-sugar diets have been linked to an increased risk of dying from heart disease.
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How Diabetes Causes Kidney Disease
Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny filters called nephrons. Over time, high blood sugar from diabetes can damage blood vessels in the kidneys as well as nephrons so they dont work as well as they should. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can damage kidneys too.
CKD takes a long time to develop and usually doesnt have any signs or symptoms in the early stages. You wont know you have CKD unless your doctor checks you for it.
Control Your Blood Pressure
When the pressure of the blood against the wall of the blood vessels is too high, it is termed as high blood pressure. It also means that the heart has to work hard to pump the blood. High blood pressure can even damage the blood vessels in your kidneys.
Your healthcare team will also work to help you reach your blood pressure goals. The blood pressure goal for the diabetic patient should be below 140/90 mm Hg. But you should ask about what your goal should be given your health status.
Medicines that lower blood pressure pressurizes the kidney even more. So, be careful about your medicines.
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How Can I Prevent It
Diabetic kidney disease can be prevented by keeping blood glucose in your target range. Research has shown that tight blood glucose control reduces the risk of microalbuminuria by one third. In people who already had microalbuminuria, the risk of progressing to macroalbuminuria was cut in half. Other studies have suggested that tight control can reverse microalbuminuria.
Reasons Why Too Much Sugar Is Bad For You
From marinara sauce to peanut butter, added sugar can be found in even the most unexpected products.
Many people rely on quick, processed foods for meals and snacks. Since these products often contain added sugar, it makes up a large proportion of their daily calorie intake.
In the US, added sugars account for up to 17% of the total calorie intake of adults and up to 14% for children (
Experts believe that sugar consumption is a major cause of obesity and many chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.
Here are 11 reasons why eating too much sugar is bad for your health.
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May Boost Skin Health
Eating apricots may benefit your skin.
The main causes of wrinkles and skin damage are environmental factors, such as the sun, pollution, and cigarette smoke .
Whats more, research indicates a direct link between ultraviolet light exposure, sunburns, and your risk of melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer .
Notably, you can fight some of this skin damage through a healthy diet full of antioxidants, which apricots provide.
Vitamins C and E, both found in this fruit, may aid your skin. In particular, vitamin C protects against UV damage and environmental pollutants by neutralizing free radicals .
Furthermore, this vitamin helps build collagen, which gives your skin strength and elasticity. Eating a diet high in vitamin C can help your skin heal from UV damage and prevent wrinkles .
Beta carotene, another apricot nutrient, may protect against sunburns. In a 10-week study, supplementing with beta carotene reduced sunburn risk by 20% .
While you should still use sunscreen, munching on apricots may offer additional protection.
Summary Apricots are naturally high in antioxidants, which guard against environmental damage from sunlight, pollution, and cigarette smoke. These compounds may benefit your skin by lowering your risk of wrinkles and sunburn.
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American Heart Association News Stories
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Eating Too Many Foods High In Sugar
Sugar contributes to obesity which increases your risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes, two of the leading causes of kidney disease. In addition to desserts, sugar is often added to foods and drinks that you may not consider sweet. Avoid condiments, breakfast cereals, and white bread which are all sneaky sources of processed sugar. Pay attention to the ingredients when buying packaged goods to avoid added sugar in your diet.
By Lisa Rapaport, Reuters Health
5 Min Read
People whose blood sugar levels are in the borderline range higher than normal, but not yet diabetic might still have an increased risk of kidney problems, a Norwegian study suggests.
Compared to individuals with normal blood sugar, people with slightly abnormal glucose levels are more likely to have two problems associated with kidney disease abnormal blood filtration and more of the protein albumin in the urine, the study found.
The questions, said Dr. Robert Cohen, an endocrinology researcher at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine who wasnt involved in the study, are, What represents abnormal `enough blood sugar to start causing problems in the kidneys that we see with full blown diabetes, and what criteria should we be using if we want to get a head start on preventing the complications of diabetes?
How Does My Weight Affect My Risk For Kidney Disease
Less is More When You Heart Your Kidneys
Know your Body Mass Index : This number gives you a rough idea of your total percent of body fat. Normal BMI is usually between 18 and 25. A BMI between 25 to 30 is considered overweight, and greater than 30 is considered obese. You may have a higher weight compared to other people, but you may have a normal BMI. This happens if you have more body weight coming from muscle than coming from fat. Having more muscle than fat is healthier. Eat a diet rich in fruits and veggies.
Make lifestyle changes, such as getting more exercise and watching portion sizes.
Get your kidneys checked. It just takes two simple tests blood and urine at your primary care doctors office to check for any signs of kidney disease.
Control blood sugar if you have diabetes.
Control blood pressure if you have high blood pressure.
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Effect On Kidney Stones
The good news is that drinking cola does not raise your risk of kidney stones. Research published in the Journal of Endourology in 2009 determined that drinking diet caffeine-free cola did not cause kidney stones in healthy adults. Kidney stones are typically formed from substances such as calcium, oxalate, creatinine and sodium and can lead to pain, inflammation and kidney damage.
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Bladder Conditions And Urinary Tract Infections
Diabetes can affect the function and structure of the lower urinary tract, which in turn may play a role in patients with diabetes having more UTIs, overactive or underactive bladder, and problems with urination, says Michael J. Kennelly, MD, Professor of Urology and Obstetrics & Gynecology at Carolinas Medical Center.
Over time, people with diabetes may lose sensory function. This can make it hard to know that you have to go to the bathroom. As a result, people may wait too long to go to the bathroom, or if the urine stays in the bladder too long, it may raise your chance for getting a bladder or kidney infection.
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How Is Diabetic Kidney Disease Diagnosed And Assessed
Diabetic kidney disease is diagnosed when the level of albumin in the urine is raised and there is no other obvious cause for this. Urine tests are part of the routine checks that are offered to people with diabetes from time to time. Urine tests can detect albumin and measure how much is present in the urine.
The standard routine urine test is to compare the amount of albumin with the amount of creatinine in a urine sample. This is called the albumin:creatinine ratio . Creatinine is a breakdown product of muscle.
A blood test can show how well the kidneys are working. The blood test measures the level of creatinine, which is normally cleared from the blood by the kidneys. If your kidneys are not working properly, the level of creatinine in the blood goes up. An estimate of how well your kidneys are working can be made by taking into account the blood level of creatinine, your age and your sex. This estimate of kidney function is called the estimated glomerular filtration rate .
Review Of Your Medication
Certain medicines can affect the kidneys as a side-effect which can make diabetic kidney disease worse. For example, you should not take anti-inflammatory medicines unless advised to by a doctor. You may also need to adjust the dose of certain medicines that you may take if your kidney disease becomes worse.
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Choose Foods With The Right Amount Of Potassium
When your kidneys are not working well, your potassium level may be too high or too low. Having too much or too little potassium can cause muscle cramps, problems with the way your heart beats and muscle weakness.
If you have kidney disease, your doctor or dietitian may tell you to lower the amount of potassium in your eating plan.
Use the lists below to learn foods that are low or high in potassium.
Foods low in potassium
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Nutritional Recommendations For Diabetic Patients With Ckd
As diabetic patients experience progressive loss of renal function, nutritional issues become more complex. On one hand, in addition to the existing limitations associated with DM, specific restrictions are needed for patients with CKD, including restriction of protein, phosphorus, and potassium. On the other hand, patients with worsening uremic syndrome have a higher risk of protein-calorie malnutrition that needs to be identified and addressed by the medical team. Thus, nutritional monitoring is of utmost importance in this patient population. Standardized protocols should be avoided, and individualized care and monitoring of patients should be implemented.
Initially, patients should be evaluated based on their standard intake and clinical laboratory results. Then, a nutritional counseling plan should be designed based on nutritional guidelines that aid in the development of appropriate diets for patients, always considering individual needs.
For the population of diabetic patients with CKD in the non-dialytic phase, the composition of macronutrients in the nutritional plan is described in Table
Table 1 Dietary plan macronutrient composition for DKD in the non-dialysis stage.
One method that can be used to control blood glucose in these patients is carbohydrate counting, in which grams of this macronutrient obtained from meals are recorded throughout the day. This method is efficient in food control and the use of insulin, and its orientation should be individualized.
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How To Prevent Kidney Stones
There are things you can do every day to help keep kidney stones from forming.
Drink plenty of water. Staying hydrated is one of the best things you can do to stop stones from forming. Try to drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day.
Eat a healthy diet. Experts suggest the heart-healthy DASH diet, which is rich in fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and fish and lean poultry. Be careful with animal protein, though. Too much of it from things like red meat, poultry, and seafood can raise your levels of uric acid. That can make kidney stones more likely. When you do have meat, keep your portion to about the size of a deck of cards. Talk with your doctor before you make any big changes.
Exercise. It can help you lose extra pounds and it can play a big part in helping you manage your diabetes. Just make sure that you stay hydrated while you get your sweat on. Not sure what to do? Your doctor can help you find the right exercise program for you.
Can Diabetes Kill You
Yes, its possible that if diabetes remains undiagnosed and uncontrolled it can cause devastating harm to your body. Diabetes can cause heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and coma. These complications can lead to your death. Cardiovascular disease in particular is the leading cause of death in adults with diabetes.
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