What Is Blood Sugar
Blood sugar, or blood glucose, is a measurement of the amount of glucose in your blood.
When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks down those carbs into glucose. This becomes your body’s main source of energy, and fuels the vital functions in your brain, heart, liver, and muscles, says Nestoras Mathioudakis, MD, a diabetes expert at Johns Hopkins Medicine.
For people without diabetes, the pancreas releases insulin to help your cells absorb glucose and fuel your body. But for people with diabetes, the body does not produce insulin or it doesn’t work properly, and as a result, blood sugar levels must be carefully regulated to prevent health complications.
How To Use Your Blood Sugar Levels Chart
In order to manage your blood sugar levels youll have to manage what you eat. Refined high glycemic carbohydrates are foods that should be avoided. Instead choose healthy carbs whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
To measure blood sugar levels, buy a sugar meter, or get one free from the companies that give them away .
Currently, the only way to test yourself is to prick your finger , put the blood on a testing strip into the sugar meter and compare your readings with the blood sugar levels chart above.
Be sure to read the sugar meter instructions and follow the directions.
To be accurate, youll need to check your blood sugar levels before breakfast, two hours after a meal and then again before going to bed.
What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
If you think you may have low blood sugar, check it even if you dont have symptoms.
When too many ketones are produced too fast, they can build up in your body and cause diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. DKA is very serious and can cause a coma or even death. Common symptoms of DKA include:
- Fast, deep breathing.
- Nausea and vomiting.
If you think you may have DKA, test your urine for ketones. Follow the test kit directions, checking the color of the test strip against the color chart in the kit to see your ketone level. If your ketones are high, . DKA requires treatment in a hospital.
DKA happens most in people with type 1 diabetes and is sometimes the first sign of type 1 in people who havent yet been diagnosed. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but its less common.
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Why Does Blood Glucose Level Rise In Diabetes
The food we eat is converted to glucose and released into the bloodstream. Therefore, blood sugar levels are high after eating. The increase in glucose level signals our pancreas to release insulin.
Insulin helps our body cells to absorb glucose. As a result, blood glucose level goes down / becomes normal again. This process of cell absorption helps in regulating/maintaining normal blood glucose levels.
But in the case of diabetes, our body becomes insulin resistant, or there is insulin deficiency. Due to this our body cells do not absorb blood glucose, resulting in high blood glucose levels, thus causing Diabetes which comes with health problems like thyroid, stress, loss of muscle weight, acidity, insomnia, low energy level, etc. Over a period of time, such high blood glucose levels can cause damage to nerves, kidneys, eyes, and heart. With the right changes in your habits of eating, exercising, sleeping patterns, and stress management we have seen more than 10.000 patients reversing their diabetes. Get started with your diabetes reversal journey, connect with top diabetes experts now.
Therefore if you have diabetes, it is essential to maintain your blood sugar readings at some typical acceptable values, which can be attained by having a healthy lifestyle that will aid the reversal of diabetes and following a sustainable diet plan that you can follow which includes staple food, easily available in your kitchen and does not include supplements.
How Does Lack Of Sleep Raise Your Risk
Itâs hard to know for certain. Many studies have suggested that short sleepers have irregular eating habits, snack more, and are more likely to eat unhealthy foods.
Other research has found that shortchanging sleep can directly affect how the body makes other hormones, which in turn affect blood sugar. For example, when you stay up late, your body makes more of the hormone cortisol, which affects how insulin works.
Also, growing evidence shows that disrupting your bodyâs biological clock by being awake at night can make your cells more resistant to insulin. In one study, researchers altered the circadian rhythms of 16 healthy volunteers by allowing only 5 hours of sleep each night for 5 nights, much like a sleep-deprived workweek. When those volunteers ate food at night — a time when the body isnât biologically prepared for a spike in blood sugar — their bodies didnât use insulin normally.
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What Should Blood Sugar Be At Bedtime
Target blood sugar ranges can vary not only throughout your lifetime, but throughout a typical day as well!
You may opt to have a higher blood sugar before exercise, for example, or a lower blood sugar before eating dessert. This all depends on the individual.
But one common question is what should your blood sugar be at bedtime?
This article will discuss the importance of having a safe blood sugar before bed, what to do to achieve it, and other tips for better blood sugar management in the evening.
Chart Of Normal Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes Age Wise
The amount of glucose present in blood fluctuates during the day and at night. Our body maintains a level of blood glucose for metabolism. The normal sugar level in a healthy body is between 90 to 100 mg/dL. But sometimes, these blood sugar levels may go high or low due to various factors. Such high or low blood glucose levels are signs of health conditions that need/ require attention and blood glucose can be kept at healthy levels with various Diabetes Reversal Methods and medical attention. This article gives in-depth information about normal blood sugar levels chart for adults with diabetes according to age.
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Sleep And Blood Sugar Levels: The Association
People with diabetes experience high or low blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels in diabetic patients depend on the insulin performance of the body.
When the pancreas fails to release insulin or does not release enough, the condition is known as type 1 diabetes. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is a condition where the body doesnt react correctly to insulin .
A study reports that diabetic people are at greater risk of stroke or heart disease. Hence, they should lead a healthy lifestyle and keep track of their blood sugar levels.
The fundamentals of a healthy lifestyle involve adequate sleep and the least stress. So, if you have diabetes, you must prioritise your sleep and ensure that you give your body enough rest because these factors are proportional to your blood sugar levels.
An analysis shows that people whose sleeping hours as less than 6 are likely to have type 2 diabetes. It also shows that those who sleep more than 9 hours can get diabetes. So, just like a healthy diet and regular exercise are essential for a fit body, sleep also plays a vital role. Furthermore, sleeping for less than 6 hours may release excess cortisol, which causes insulin resistance and spikes blood sugar levels.
Tips To Prevent Blood Sugar From Dropping At Night
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, occurs when blood glucose levels drop below normalwhich is typically below a level of 70 milligrams per deciliter . With levels more commonly dipping at nighttime, otherwise referred to as nighttime hypoglycemia, this condition affects mostly patients with diabetes.
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When To See A Doctor
According to the University of Michigan, blood sugar levels of 300 mg/dL or more can be dangerous. They recommend calling a doctor if you have two readings in a row of 300 or more.
See your doctor if you have consistently high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of this include:
- increased thirst
- high levels of sugar in urine
Ask your doctor how often to check your blood sugar and about your ideal blood sugar levels.
If you dont currently see a doctor who specializes in diabetes, known as an endocrinologist, you can find one by searching the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists website.
You can find a certified diabetes educator by visiting the American Diabetes Associations website and searching by zip code.
Talk to your doctor if you have consistently high blood sugar readings or symptoms of chronic hyperglycemia.
Checking your blood sugar and then treating hyperglycemia early will help prevent any complications.
Health problems can arise when someone has high blood sugar regularly and without treatment.
Examples of complications include:
- nerve damage, called diabetic neuropathy, that may affect sensations in the feet and hands
- diabetic retinopathy, or damage to the blood vessels in the eyes that affects vision
- increased risks for kidney problems
- increased risks for heart problems
Taking steps to keep your blood sugar at target levels can help to minimize the likelihood that these complications will occur.
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How Is Blood Sugar Measured
In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter . This is abbreviated as mg/dl.
In Europe and Canada, blood sugar is measured a little differently, by millimole per liter, which is abbreviated mmol. However its measured, blood sugar is the concentration of sugar or glucose in the bloodstream.
If you multiply the Canadian or European mmol, by the number 18, you can calculate milligrams per deciliter.
In other words, if a person in Canada reports their blood sugar as an 8, multiply 8 times 18 to give you the number 144 . Using this calculation, this persons blood sugar = 144 mg/dl, .
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What Is The Dawn Phenomenon
Another reason for high nighttime blood sugar levels is the dawn phenomenon. The dawn phenomenon occurs early in the morning when the body naturally signals your liver to produce glucose, giving your body the energy it needs to wake up.
The hormonal changes associated with the dawn phenomenon happen to people with or without diabetes, though those without diabetes do not experience hyperglycemia. If you take insulin, you may need to try a new basal insulin or adjust the timing and amount of your basal dose or your nighttime basal rates to cover an early morning rise.
What Is Normal Blood Glucose
There is no one blood glucose level that defines a person as normal. The table of blood glucose levels below gives the appropriate values at different times and in different states, according to the American Diabetes Association. For example, insulin-dependent diabetics often use an upper limit of 7 mmol/L or 140 mg/dL, while non-insulin-dependent diabetics may aim for less than 6 mmol/L or 108 mg/DL.
The blood glucose levels range between less than 100-180 mg/dL for adults from 20 years or older. Depending on your age this may vary.
- Fasting: Less than 5.6 mmol/L or 100 mg/DL
- Before meal: 3.9-7.2 mmol/L or 70-130 mg/DL
- 1-2 hours after eating: Less than 10 mmol/L or 180 mg/DL
- Bedtime: 5.6-7.8 mmol/L or 100-140 mg/DL
Be aware that the above numbers might be different for everyone depending on your doctor’s recommendations.
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Brush And Floss Your Teeth
People with diabetes must take special care of your gums and teeth. The chances of developing gum disease and cavities is more amongst people with type 2 diabetes. . Your saliva is sweeter than usual if you are suffering from type 2 diabetes. It can set off a vicious cycle wherein diabetes causes gum disease , that raises blood sugar levels. This further aggravates the problem of diabetes management. Bacteria grow on sugar and can feast on it overnight. It is therefore important to brush and floss properly every night before bedtime. This will prevent food and bacteria accumulation, leading to healthy gums and teeth.
What If My Blood Glucose Is Low Before I Go To Bed
Many non-diabetics will have glucose values below 70 mg/dL without any symptoms of hypoglycemia . If no symptoms are present and glucose is above 55 mg/dL, then there is nothing to be concerned about.
But if you are curious about your low glucose values, then there are a few avenues you can inspect:
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Normal Blood Sugar Levels For People With Type 2 Diabetes
Together with your doctor, you can determine your ideal blood sugar goals for different times throughout the day.
Adults with type 2 diabetes should normally aim for the following typical ranges:
Before you eat: 70130 mg/dl
After you eat: less than 180 mg/dl
At bedtime: 100140 mg/dl
These numbers may differ from person to person, depending on underlying conditions, treatment, and age.
When Blood Sugar Levels Drop Too Low Its Called Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Can Happen To Anyone Who Has Diabetes Or Not Symptoms Of Blood Sugar
When blood sugar levels drop too low, its called hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia can happen to anyone who has diabetes or not. Symptoms of blood sugar being too low can be different for each person and can range from mild to severe. The most common symptoms are listed below. If you have any of these symptoms, check your blood sugar level immediately.
Irritability or mood changes
If you have severe hypoglycemia and cannot eat or drink, you may need an injection of glucagon. Glucagon is a hormone that raises blood sugar levels quickly. It is essential to always have glucagon with you in case of severe hypoglycemia. If you have questions about how to use glucagon, talk to your healthcare team.
Shaking is the most prevalent symptom of hypoglycemia, followed by perspiration, anxiety, heart palpitations, and feeling either too hot or too cold. In addition to them, additional symptoms may include a headache, hazy vision, nausea, weakness, and difficulty concentrating. Seizures, unconsciousness, and even death have been linked to hypoglycemia in its most severe forms.
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How Can I Check My Blood Sugar
Use a blood sugar meter or a continuous glucose monitor to check your blood sugar. A blood sugar meter measures the amount of sugar in a small sample of blood, usually from your fingertip. A CGM uses a sensor inserted under the skin to measure your blood sugar every few minutes. If you use a CGM, youll still need to test daily with a blood sugar meter to make sure your CGM readings are accurate.
How To Measure Blood Sugar Levels
There are two main ways to check your blood sugar levels:
Type 1 diabetics, along with some type 2 diabetics, who require insulin medication, must check their blood sugar at least four times per day, says Mathioudakis. Typically, this should be done before a meal, one to two hours after a meal, and at bedtime.
The timing of these measurements can help determine how much insulin to use. For example, it can be important to use more insulin after a high-sugar meal, or to avoid falling into hypoglycemia while you’re sleeping.
To check your blood sugar at home, you should use blood glucose tests, such as a glucose meter or continuous glucose monitor . Both devices measure blood sugar with the unit mg/dL, which means a milligram of sugar per deciliter of blood.
If you don’t have diabetes, but you may be at risk, your doctor might have you take an A1C test during a yearly check-up. This test reports results as a percentage the higher the percentage, the higher your blood sugar has been in the past three months. Those with diabetes should get an A1C test at least twice a year and sometimes every three months.
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The Right Blood Sugar Level At Bedtime
Routine blood sugar checks must be an essential part of your routine. You should not miss checking your sugar before bedtime as it helps to access which foods work and which dont for your diabetes. Ideally, your blood sugar must be between 90 to 150 mg/dL before you go to sleep. For a normal person, blood sugar levels should lie between 70 to 130 mg/dL.
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Check Your Blood Sugar Before Bed
For everybody with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, its absolutely critical that they check their blood sugar before going to bed to make sure theyre not going to have an episode of low blood sugar during the night, says Helena W. Rodbard, MD, medical director of Endocrine and Metabolic Consultants, a private practice in Rockville, Maryland, and past president of the American College of Endocrinology.
If your blood sugar levels are low at bedtime, eat a healthy snack before going to sleep. The size of the snack should be in proportion to the dip in blood sugar. For instance, a small drop in blood sugar requires only a small snack. If you use an insulin pump, consider temporarily reducing the active dose of insulin.
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